Timbre

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Dalam musik, timbre (/ˈtæmbər/ TAM-bər, juga dikenal dengan warna nada atau kualitas nada dari ilmu psikoakustik merupakan kualitas penerimaan suara dari sebuah nada musik, suara, atau nada yang membedakan jenis yang berbeda dari produksi suara, seperti suara koor, dan instrumen musik, seperti instrumen petik, instrumen angin, dan instrumen perkusi, dan memungkinkan pendengar mendengar instrumen yang berbeda-beda dari jenis yang sama sebagai jenis berbeda, seperti viola dan violin.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Dixon Ward, W. (1970) "Musical Perception". In Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory vol. 1, edited by Jerry V. Tobias,[halaman dibutuhkan]. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-691901-1.
  • Erickson, Robert (1975). Sound Structure in Music. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02376-5. 
  • Grey, John M. (1977). "Multidimensional Perceptual Scaling of Musical Timbres". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 61(5):1270–77. DOI:10.1121/1.381428
  • Lakatos, S. (2000). "A Common Perceptual Space for Harmonic and Percussive Timbres". Perception & Psychophysics 62(7):1426–39. PMID 11143454.
  • Luce, David A. (1963). "Physical Correlates of Nonpercussive Musical Instrument Tones", Ph.D. dissertation. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • McAdams, Stephen, and Albert Bregman (1979). "Hearing Musical Streams". Computer Music Journal 3, no. 4 (December): 26–43, 60.
  • Peeters, G. (2003) “A Large Set of Audio Features or Sound Description (Similarity and Classification) in the CUIDADO Project”.[perlu rujukan lengkap]
  • Pollard, H. F., and E. V. Jansson (1982) A Tristimulus Method for the Specification of Musical Timbre. Acustica 51:162–71.
  • Samson, Jim (1977). Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 1900-1920. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-02193-9. 
  • Schouten, J. F. (1968). "The Perception of Timbre". In Reports of the 6th International Congress on Acoustics, Tokyo, GP-6-2, 6 vols., edited by Y. Kohasi,[perlu rujukan lengkap]35–44, 90. Tokyo: Maruzen; Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Sethares, William (1998). Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale. Berlin, London, and New York: Springer. ISBN 3-540-76173-X.
  • Wessel, David (1979). "Low Dimensional Control of Musical Timbre". Computer Music Journal 3:45–52. Rewritten version, 1999, as "Timbre Space as a Musical Control Structure".