Tanggung jawab melindungi

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Tanggung jawab melindungi (bahasa Inggris: Responsibility to protect; disingkat R2P atau RtoP) adalah norma yang menyatakan bahwa kedaulatan bukan hak mutlak dan negara kehilangan sebagian kedaulatannya apabila negara gagal melindungi penduduknya dari kejahatan dan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia massal (genosida, kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan, kejahatan perang, dan pembersihan etnis).[1][2][3] R2P memiliki tiga pilar:[4][5]

  1. Sebuah negara bertanggung jawab melindungi penduduknya dari genosida, kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan, kejahatan perang, dan pembersihan etnis.
  2. Masyarakat internasional bertanggun jawab membantu negara memenuhi tanggung jawab utamanya.
  3. Apabila negara gagal melindungi warganya dari empat tindak kekerasan di atas dan gagal menegakkan perdamaian, masyarakat internasional bertanggung jawab untuk campur tangan lewat tindakan koersif seperti sanksi militer. Intervensi militer dianggap sebagai pilihan terakhir. resort.

Meski R2P adalah norma yang diusulkan, bukan hukum, para pendukungnya menegaskan bahwa R2P didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional, terutama prinsip terkait kedaulatan, perdamaian dan keamanan, hak asasi manusia, dan konflik bersenjata.[6][7]

R2P menciptakan kerangka kerja untuk memanfaatkan jalan yang sudah tersedia (i.e., mediasi, peringatan awal, sanksi militer, dan kuasa bab VII) untuk mencegah tindak kekerasan massal. Organisasi masyarakat sipil, negara, organisasi regional, dan lembaga internasional turut berperan dalam proses R2P. Kewenangan pilihan terakhir dan keputusan intervensi militer dipegang oleh Dewan Keamanan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (DK PBB).

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Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Mission Statement". United Nations: Office of the special adviser on the prevention of genocide. Diakses tanggal 2012-01-07. 
  2. ^ Iqbal, Zareen (April 29, 2010). "Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): MONUC's Impending Withdrawal". International Institute for Justice and Development. Diakses tanggal 2012-01-10. 
  3. ^ Taylor Owen; Anouk Dey (5 April 2011). "R2P: More than a slogan". thestar.com. Diakses tanggal 10 September 2013. Emerging from a Canadian-funded commission in 2001 into how the international community should react when faced with mass atrocity crimes, the concept is intended to put a degree of conditionality on the notion of sovereignty. The sovereign rights of states, R2P argues, are conditional on the protection of civilians against large-scale slaughter. If a state is unable or unwilling to protect its people, the international community has a responsibility to step in, using peaceful or coercive means. 
  4. ^ "2005 World Summit Outcome" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly, Sixtieth session, items 48 and 121 of the provisional agenda. A/60/L.1, 40 pages. Diakses tanggal 2012-01-07. 
  5. ^ Badescu, Cristina G. (2010). Humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect: security and human rights (Google eBook). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis e-Library. p. 110. ISBN 0-203-83454-2. 
  6. ^ http://otago.ourarchive.ac.nz/handle/10523/2279. (Judson 2012).
  7. ^ Hehir, Aidan; Cunliffe, Philip, ed. (2011), "Chapter 7, The responsibility to protect and international law", Critical Perspectives on the Responsibility to Protect: Interrogating Theory, Practice, New York, NY: Taylor and Francis e-Library, pp. 84–100, ISBN 0-203-83429-1 

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Global Responsibility to Protect
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  • Baylis and Smith, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 394
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  • Downes, Paul. Melville's Benito Cereno and Humanitarian Intervention South Atlantic Quarterly. 103.2–3. Spring/Summer 2004, pp. 465–488.
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