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Siborg (lakuran dari sibernetika dan organisme) adalah makhluk dengan bagian tubuh organik sekaligus biomekatronik. Istilah tersebut dicetuskan pada tahun 1960 oleh Manfred E. Clynes dan Nathan S. Kline.[1]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Cyborgs and Space, in Astronautics (September 1960), by Manfred E. Clynes and American scientist and researcher Nathan S. Kline.

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Balsamo, Anne. Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.
  • Caidin, Martin. Cyborg; A Novel. New York: Arbor House, 1972.
  • Clark, Andy. Natural-Born Cyborgs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Crittenden, Chris. "Self-Deselection: Technopsychotic Annihilation via Cyborg." Ethics & the Environment 7.2 (Autumn 2002): 127–152.
  • Franchi, Stefano, and Güven Güzeldere, eds. Mechanical Bodies, Computational Minds: Artificial Intelligence from Automata to Cyborgs. MIT Press, 2005.
  • Flanagan, Mary, and Austin Booth, eds. Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2002.
  • Glaser, Horst Albert and Rossbach, Sabine: The Artificial Human, Frankfurt/M., Bern, New York 2011 "The Artificial Human"
  • Gray, Chris Hables. Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2001.
  • Gray, Chris Hables, ed. The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge, 1995.
  • Grenville, Bruce, ed. The Uncanny: Experiments in Cyborg Culture. Arsenal Pulp Press, 2002.
  • Halacy, D. S. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
  • Halberstam, Judith, and Ira Livingston. Posthuman Bodies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
  • Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women; The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1990.
  • Haraway, Donna. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century." The Transgender Studies Reader. Eds. Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle. New York: Routledge, 2006. pp. 103–118.
  • Klugman, Craig. "From Cyborg Fiction to Medical Reality." Literature and Medicine 20.1 (Spring 2001): 39–54.
  • Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Viking, 2005.
  • Mann, Steve. "Telematic Tubs against Terror: Bathing in the Immersive Interactive Media of the Post-Cyborg Age." Leonardo 37.5 (October 2004): 372–373.
  • Mann, Steve, and Hal Niedzviecki. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer Doubleday, 2001. ISBN 0-385-65825-7 (A paperback version also exists, ISBN 0-385-65826-5).
  • Masamune Shirow, Ghost in the Shell. Endnotes, 1991. Kodansha ISBN 4-7700-2919-5.
  • Mertz, David (1989). "Cyborgs" (PDF). International Encyclopedia of Communications. Blackwell 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-504994-7. Diakses tanggal 28 October 2008. 
  • Mitchell, Kaye. "Bodies That Matter: Science Fiction, Technoculture, and the Gendered Body." Science Fiction Studies.Vol. 33, No. 1, Technoculture and Science Fiction (Mar., 2006), pp. 109–128
  • Mitchell, William. Me++: The Cyborg Self and the Networked City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2003.
  • Muri, Allison. The Enlightenment Cyborg: A History of Communications and Control in the Human Machine, 1660–1830. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.
  • Muri, Allison. Of Shit and the Soul: Tropes of Cybernetic Disembodiment. Body & Society 9.3 (2003): 73–92.
  • Nicogossian, Judith. From Reconstruction to the Augmentation of the Human Body in Restorative Medicine and in Cybernetics THESIS in Biological and Cultural Anthropology (2011). Diarsipkan 2017-10-18 di Wayback Machine.
  • Nishime, LeiLani. "The Mulatto Cyborg: Imagining a Multiracial Future." Cinema Journal 44.2 (Winter 2005), 34–49.
  • The Oxford English dictionary. 2nd ed. edited by J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Vol 4 p. 188.
  • Rorvik, David M. As Man Becomes Machine: the Evolution of the Cyborg. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.
  • Rushing, Janice Hocker, and Thomas S. Frentz. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
  • Smith, Marquard, and Joanne Morra, eds. The Prosthetic Impulse: From a Posthuman Present to a Biocultural Future. MIT Press, 2005.
  • The science fiction handbook for readers and writers. By George S. Elrick. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1978, p. 77.
  • The science fiction encyclopaedia. General editor, Peter Nicholls, associate editor, John Clute, technical editor, Carolyn Eardley, contributing editors, Malcolm Edwards, Brian Stableford. 1st ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979, p. 151.
  • Warwick, Kevin. I, Cyborg, University of Illinois Press, 2004.
  • Yoshito Ikada, Bio Materials: an approach to Artificial Organs

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Sibernetika Templat:Robotika Templat:Fiksi ilmiah