Nootropika

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Nootropika (pronunciation: /n.əˈtrɒpks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks) adalah obat-obatan, suplemen atau substansi lainnya yang dapat memperbaiki fungsi kognitif, terutama fungsi eksekutif, ingatan, kreativitas atau motivasi pada individu-individu yang sehat.[1][2] Penggunaan obat yang memperkuat fungsi kognisi oleh individu-individu yang sehat merupakan salah satu topik yang paling diperdebatkan oleh ahli neurosains, psikiatri dan kedokteran yang berkaitan dengan beberapa isu, seperti etika, efek samping dan penyalahgunaan obat preskripsi untuk kegunaan nonmedis.[1][3][4] Meskipun begitu, penjualan suplemen nootropika melebihi US$1 miliar pada tahun 2015 dan permintaan terus menguat.[5]

Istilah "nootropika" dicetuskan pada tahun 1972 oleh psikolog dan ahli kimia Rumania Corneliu E. Giurgea[6][7] dan berasal dari kata dalam bahasa Yunani νοῦς (nous) yang berarti "pikiran" dan τρέπειν (trepein) yang berarti "berputar" atau "berbalik".[8]

Saat ini hanya sedikit obat yang diketahui dapat memperkuat aspek kognitif. Obat-obatan nootropika lainnya masih dikembangkan.[9] Kategori obat yang paling sering digunakan adalah stimulan seperti kafeina.[10] Mahasiswa-mahasiswa telah menggunakan substansi nootropika untuk meningkatkan produktivitas, terutama pada mereka yang masuk ke perguruan tinggi yang sangat kompetitif.[11] Menurut survei, 0,7 hingga 4,5% mahasiswa Jerman telah menggunakan substansi nootropika dalam hidup mereka.[12][13][14] Stimulan seperti dimetilamilamin dan metilfenidat telah digunakan di kampus dan oleh kelompok yang lebih muda.[9] Berdasarkan penelitian penggunaan stimulan secara ilegal, 5 hingga 35% siswa college telah menggunakan stimulan-stimulan untuk penyakit ADHD dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan performa akademis.[15][16][17]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Frati P, Kyriakou C, Del Rio A, Marinelli E, Vergallo GM, Zaami S, Busardò FP (January 2015). "Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: revolving doors of cosmetic neurology". Curr Neuropharmacol. 13 (1): 5–11. doi:10.2174/1570159X13666141210221750. PMC 4462043alt=Dapat diakses gratis. PMID 26074739. 
  2. ^ Lanni C, Lenzken SC, Pascale A, et al. (March 2008). "Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind". Pharmacol. Res. 57 (3): 196–213. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2008.02.004. PMID 18353672. 
  3. ^ Albertson TE, Chenoweth JA, Colby DK, Sutter ME (2016). "The Changing Drug Culture: Use and Misuse of Cognition-Enhancing Drugs". FP Essent. 441: 25–9. PMID 26881770. 
  4. ^ Greely H, Sahakian B, Harris J, Kessler RC, Gazzaniga M, Campbell P, Farah MJ (2008). "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy". Nature. 456 (7223): 702–5. doi:10.1038/456702a. PMID 19060880. 
  5. ^ Chinthapalli K (September 2015). "The billion dollar business of being smart". BMJ. 351: h4829. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4829. PMID 26370589. International sales of non-prescription supplements for cognition also exceed $1bn (£650 000; €880 000) a year and are rapidly growing. Ginkgo biloba, vitamins, and even caffeine are common ingredients. Some add piracetam (related to the epilepsy drug levetiracetam), jellyfish proteins, or even “edible pure 23.5 carat gold flakes.” 
  6. ^ Gazzaniga, Michael S. (2006). The Ethical Brain: The Science of Our Moral Dilemmas (P.S.). New York, N.Y: Harper Perennial. hlm. 184. ISBN 0-06-088473-8. 
  7. ^ Giurgea C (1972). "[Pharmacology of integrative activity of the brain. Attempt at nootropic concept in psychopharmacology] ("Vers une pharmacologie de l'active integrative du cerveau: Tentative du concept nootrope en psychopharmacologie")". Actual Pharmacol (Paris) (dalam bahasa French). 25: 115–56. PMID 4541214. 
  8. ^ "nootropicTranslation". Diakses tanggal October 6, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Sahakian B; Morein-Zamir S (December 2007). "Professor's little helper". Nature. 450 (7173): 1157–9. Bibcode:2007Natur.450.1157S. doi:10.1038/4501157a. PMID 18097378. 
  10. ^ Greely, Henry; Sahakian, Barbara; Harris, John; Kessler, Ronald C.; Gazzaniga, Michael; Campbell, Philip; Farah, Martha J. (December 10, 2008). "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 456 (7223): 702–705. Bibcode:2008Natur.456..702G. doi:10.1038/456702a. ISSN 1476-4687. OCLC 01586310. PMID 19060880. Diakses tanggal March 25, 2014. ((Perlu berlangganan (help)). 
  11. ^ McCabe, Sean Esteban; Knight, John R.; Teter, Christian J.; Wechsler, Henry (January 1, 2005). "Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey". Addiction. 100 (1): 96–106. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.00944.x. PMID 15598197. 
  12. ^ Sattler, S.; Sauer, C.; Mehlkop, G.; Graeff, P. (2013). "The Rationale for Consuming Cognitive Enhancement Drugs in University Students and Teachers". PLoS ONE. 8 (7): e68821. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068821. PMC 3714277alt=Dapat diakses gratis. PMID 23874778. 
  13. ^ Sattler, Sebastian; Wiegel, Constantin (February 25, 2013). "Cognitive Test Anxiety and Cognitive Enhancement: The Influence of Students' Worries on Their Use of Performance-Enhancing Drugs". Substance Use & Misuse. Informa Healthcare New York. 48 (3): 220–232. doi:10.3109/10826084.2012.751426. Diakses tanggal April 5, 2014. 
  14. ^ Bossaer, John. "The Use and Misuse of Prescription Stimulants as "Cognitive Enhancers" by Students at One Academic Health Sciences Center". Academic Medicine. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 10, 2015. Diakses tanggal October 6, 2014. Overall, 11.3% of responders admitted to misusing prescription stimulants. There was more misuse by respiratory therapy students, although this was not statistically significant (10.9% medicine, 9.7% pharmacy, 26.3% respiratory therapy; P = .087). Reasons for prescription stimulant misuse included to enhance alertness/energy (65.9%), to improve academic performance (56.7%), to experiment (18.2%), and to use recreationally/get high (4.5%). 
  15. ^ Teter CJ, McCabe SE, LaGrange K, Cranford JA, Boyd CJ (October 2006). "Illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students: prevalence, motives, and routes of administration". Pharmacotherapy. 26 (10): 1501–1510. doi:10.1592/phco.26.10.1501. PMC 1794223alt=Dapat diakses gratis. PMID 16999660. 
  16. ^ Weyandt LL, Oster DR, Marraccini ME, Gudmundsdottir BG, Munro BA, Zavras BM, Kuhar B (September 2014). "Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants". Psychol. Res. Behav. Manag. 7: 223–249. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S47013. PMC 4164338alt=Dapat diakses gratis. PMID 25228824. misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. ... Indeed, large numbers of students claim to have engaged in the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants, which is reflected in lifetime prevalence rates of prescription stimulant misuse ranging from 5% to nearly 34% of students. 
  17. ^ Clemow DB, Walker DJ (September 2014). "The potential for misuse and abuse of medications in ADHD: a review". Postgrad. Med. 126 (5): 64–81. doi:10.3810/pgm.2014.09.2801. PMID 25295651. Overall, the data suggest that ADHD medication misuse and diversion are common health care problems for stimulant medications, with the prevalence believed to be approximately 5% to 10% of high school students and 5% to 35% of college students, depending on the study.