Nebula planeter

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Gambar sinar X Nebula mata kucing.
Formasi Nebula planeter.
NGC 6326, sebuah nebula planeter[1]

Nebula planeter adalah sebuah emisi nebula yang terdiri dari cangkang gas terionisasi yang bersinar yang sedang mengembang yang dikeluarkan selama fase masa asimtotik dari beberapa jenis bintang dalam siklus akhir kehidupan bintang tersebut.[2]

Istilah Nebula planeter sebenarnya berawal dari kekeliruan yang dilakukan oleh William Herschel (1784 atau 1785) karena jika dilihat melalui teleskop, objek-objek tersebut terlihat menyerupai awan (nebula) yang mirip dengan penampakan Uranus, planet yang telah ditemukan dengan teleskop oleh Herschel. Nama yang diberikan oleh Herschel ini kemudian diadopsi oleh para astronom dan tidak pernah berubah lagi, walaupun nebula planeter sama sekali tidak ada hubungannya dengan planet di sistem tata surya.[3]

Nebula planeter sering berisikan bintang, tetapi tidak terlihat adanya planet. Objek ini merupakan fenomena yang berumur cukup pendek, yakni beberapa puluh ribu tahun, dibandingkan dengan umur bintang yang bisa beberapa miliar tahun.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Frankowski, Adam; Soker, Noam (November 2009), "Very late thermal pulses influenced by accretion in planetary nebulae", New Astronomy 14 (8): 654–8, Bibcode:2009NewA...14..654F, doi:10.1016/j.newast.2009.03.006, "A planetary nebula (PN) is an expanding ionized circumstellar cloud that was ejected during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of the stellar progenitor." 
  • Gurzadyan, Grigor A. (1997), The Physics and dynamics of planetary nebulae, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-60965-0 
  • Harpaz, Amos (1994), Stellar Evolution, A K Peters, Ltd., ISBN 978-1-56881-012-6 
  • Hora, Joseph L.; Latter, William B.; Allen, Lori E.; Marengo, Massimo; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Pipher, Judith L. (September 2004), "Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Observations of Planetary Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 154 (1): 296–301, Bibcode:2004ApJS..154..296H, doi:10.1086/422820 
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  • Kiss, L. L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Balog, Z.; Parker, Q. A.; Frew, D. J. (November 2008), "AAOmega radial velocities rule out current membership of the planetary nebula NGC 2438 in the open cluster M46", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 391 (1): 399–404, Bibcode:2008MNRAS.391..399K, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13899.x 
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  • Kwok, Sun (June 2005), "Planetary Nebulae: New Challenges in the 21st Century", Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society 38 (2): 271–8, Bibcode:2005JKAS...38..271K, doi:10.5303/JKAS.2005.38.2.271 
  • Kwok, Sun; Su, Kate Y. L. (December 2005), "Discovery of Multiple Coaxial Rings in the Quadrupolar Planetary Nebula NGC 6881", The Astrophysical Journal 635 (1): L49–52, Bibcode:2005ApJ...635L..49K, doi:10.1086/499332, "We report the discovery of multiple two-dimensional rings in the quadrupolar planetary nebula NGC 6881. As many as four pairs of rings are seen in the bipolar lobes, and three rings are seen in the central torus. While the rings in the lobes have the same axis as one pair of the bipolar lobes, the inner rings are aligned with the other pair. The two pairs of bipolar lobes are likely to be carved out by two separate high-velocity outflows from the circumstellar material left over from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) wind. The two-dimensional rings could be the results of dynamical instabilities or the consequence of a fast outflow interacting with remnants of discrete AGB circumstellar shells." 
  • Kwok, Sun; Koning, Nico; Huang, Hsiu-Hui; Churchwell, Edward (2006), "Planetary nebulae in the GLIMPSE survey", in Barlow, Michael J.; Méndez, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Symposium #234, Planetary Nebulae in our Galaxy and Beyond (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 2 (S234): 445–6, Bibcode:2006IAUS..234..445K, doi:10.1017/S1743921306003668, "Planetary nebulae (PNs) have high dust content and radiate strongly in the infrared. For young PNs, the dust component accounts for ∼1/3 of the total energy output of the nebulae (Zhang & Kwok 1991). The typical color temperatures of PNs are between 100 and 200 K, and at λ >5 μm, dust begins to dominate over bound-free emission from the ionized component. Although PNs are traditionally discovered through examination of photographic plates or Hα surveys, PNs can also be identified in infrared surveys by searching for red objects with a rising spectrum between 4-10 μm." 
  • Liu, X.-W.; Storey, P. J.; Barlow, M. J.; Danziger, I. J.; Cohen, M.; Bryce, M. (March 2000), "NGC 6153: a super–metal–rich planetary nebula?", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 312 (3): 585–628, Bibcode:2000MNRAS.312..585L, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03167.x 
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  • Majaess, D. J.; Turner, D.; Lane, D. (December 2007), "In Search of Possible Associations between Planetary Nebulae and Open Clusters", Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 119 (862): 1349–60, Bibcode:2007PASP..119.1349M, doi:10.1086/524414 
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  • Miszalski, B.; Jones, D.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Santander-Garcia, M. (2011), "Discovery of close binary central stars in the planetary nebulae NGC 6326 and NGC 6778", Astronomy and Astrophysics 531: A158, Bibcode:2011A&A...531A.158M, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117084  Unknown parameter |doit= ignored (help)
  • Moore, S. L. (October 2007), "Observing the Cat's Eye Nebula", Journal of the British Astronomical Association 117 (5): 279–80, Bibcode:2007JBAA..117R.279M 
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  • Reed, Darren S.; Balick, Bruce; Hajian, Arsen R.; Klayton, Tracy L.; Giovanardi, Stefano; Casertano, Stefano; Panagia, Nino; Terzian, Yervant (November 1999), "Hubble Space Telescope Measurements of the Expansion of NGC 6543: Parallax Distance and Nebular Evolution", Astronomical Journal 118 (5): 2430–41, arXiv:astro-ph/9907313, Bibcode:1999AJ....118.2430R, doi:10.1086/301091 
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  • The first detection of magnetic fields in the central stars of four planetary nebulae, SpaceDaily Express, January 6, 2005, diakses October 18, 2009, "Source: Journal Astronomy & Astrophysics" 

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