Mirza Fatali Akhundov
|Lahir||12 Juli 1812|
Nukha, Kekhanan Shaki, Qajar Iran
|Meninggal||9 Maret 1878 (umur 65)|
Tiflis, Kegubernuran Tiflis, Kekaisaran Rusia
|Pekerjaan||Pengarang drama, filsuf|
Mirza Fatali Akhundov (bahasa Azeri: Mirzə Fətəli Axundov; bahasa Persia: میرزا فتحعلی آخوندزاده), juga disebut sebagai Mirza Fatali Akhundzade atau Mirza Fath-Ali Akhundzadeh (12 Juli 1812 – 9 Maret 1878), adalah seorang penulis, pengarang drama, ultra-nasionalis, filsuf Iran Azerbaijan dan pendiri kritisisme sastra modern Azerbaijan. Akhundzade juga merupakan pendiri gerakan materialisme dan ateisme di Republik Azerbaijan dan salah satu penggerak nasionalisme Iran modern. Ia menulis dalam bahasa Azerbaijani, bahasa Persia dan bahasa Rusia.
Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]
- ĀḴŪNDZĀDA ĀḴŪNDZĀDA (in Soviet usage, AKHUNDOV), MĪRZĀ FATḤ-ʿALĪ (1812–78), Azerbaijani playwright and propagator of alphabet reform; also, one of the earliest and most outspoken atheists to appear in the Islamic world. According to his own autobiographical account (first published in Kaškūl, Baku, 1887, nos. 43–45, and reprinted in M. F. Akhundov, Alefbā-ye ǰadīd va maktūbāt, ed. H. Moḥammadzāda and Ḥ. Ārāslī, Baku, 1963, pp. 349–55), Āḵūndzāda was born in 1812 (other documents give 1811 and 1814) in the town of Nūḵa, in the part of Azerbaijan that was annexed by Russia in 1828. His father, Mīrzā Moḥammad-Taqī, had been kadḵodā of Ḵāmena, a small town about fifty kilometers to the west of Tabrīz, but he later turned to trade and, crossing the Aras river, settled in Nūḵa, where in 1811 he took a second wife. One year later, she gave birth to Mīrzā Fatḥ-ʿAlī. Āḵūndzāda’s mother was descended from an African who had been in the service of Nāder Shah, and consciousness of this African element in his ancestry served to give Āḵūndzāda a feeling of affinity with his great Russian contemporary, Pushkin.
- "Nineteenth century Iranian intellectuals, such as Mirza Fath Ali Akhundzadeh and Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani (...)" -- Aghaie, Kamran Scot; Marashi, Afshin (2014). Rethinking Iranian Nationalism and Modernity. University of Texas Press
- "(...) exemplifies the centrality of the ideal of improving on existing institutions for Akhundzadeh and other nineteenth-century Iranian intellectuals. (...) As a native speaker of Azeri who published both in Persian and Azeri." -- Litvak, Meir, ed. (2017) Constructing Nationalism in Iran: From the Qajars to the Islamic Republic. Routledge. p. 43
- Russian Azerbaijan (1905–1920): the shaping of a national identity in a Muslim community. Cambridge University Press, Boston, 1985.
- "Āk̲h̲und-Zāda , mīrzā fatḥ ʿalī (1812-78) was the first writer of original plays in a Turkish idiom. The son of a trader who hailed from Persian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, he was born in 1811 (according to Caferoǧlu) or 1812 (according to the Soviet Encyclopaedia , 1950) in S̲h̲ēkī, the present-day Nūk̲h̲ā. -- Brands, H.W., Āk̲h̲und-Zāda, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs
- "This was no doubt also the reason why Fath'ali Akhundzadeh (d. 1878), the Azebaijani Iranian who was a subject of the Russian Empire and lived in Georgia, launched an attack on Sa'adi in his general onslaught on Persian poetry. The was perhaps the first nationalist and modernist Iranian intellectual, and he rejected virtually the whole of post-Islamic Iranian culture, romantically glorified the legacy of ancient Persia, and wished to turn Iran into a Western-European style country overnight. -- Katouzian, Homa (2006). Saʿdī: The Poet of Life, Love and Compassion. Oneworld Publications. p. 3
- " The intellectual forerunners of romantic nationalism included Mirzā Fatḥ-ʿAli Āḵundzāda, Jalāl-al-Din Mirzā Qājār, and Mirzā Āqā Khan Kermāni (qq.v.). They introduced the basic ideals of the autonomy, the unity, and the prosperity of the Iranian nation with patriotic devotion." -- Ashraf, Ahmad (2006). IRANIAN IDENTITY iv. 19TH-20TH CENTURIES. Vol. XIII, Fasc. 5, pp. 522-530
- Kolarz W. Russian and Her Colonies. London. 1953. pp 244–245
- Parsinejad, Iraj. A History of Literary Criticism in Iran (1866–1951). He lived in the Russian Empire. Bethesda, MD: Ibex, 2003. p. 44.
- M. Iovchuk (ed.) et el. [The Philosophical and Sociological Thought of the Peoples of the USSR in the 19th Century http://www.biografia.ru/about/filosofia46.html]. Moscow: Mysl, 1971.
- Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition (New York: Columbia University Press), 1995, page 27-28:
- Heß, Michael R. (2015). "Axundzadə, Mirzə Fətəli". Dalam Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_2482. ISSN 1873-9830.
Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Mazinani, Mehran (2015). "Liberty in Akhundzadeh's and Kermani's Thoughts". Middle Eastern Studies. 51 (6): 883–900. doi:10.1080/00263206.2015.1026897.
Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Akhundov: Alphabet Reformer Before His Time, Azerbaijan International, Vol 8:1 (Spring 2000).
- Rebecca Ruth Gould, “The Critique of Religion as Political Critique: Mīrzā Fatḥ ʿAlī Ākhūndzāda’s Pre-Islamic Xenology,” Intellectual History Review 26.2 (2016): 171–184.
- Rebecca Ruth Gould,Memorializing Akhundzadeh: Contradictory Cosmopolitanism and Post-Soviet Narcissism in Old Tbilisi