Barat Tengah Amerika Serikat

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Wilayah Barat Tengah menurut yang didefinisikan oleh Biro Sensus AS.

Barat Tengah Amerika Serikat adalah salah satu dari empat wilayah geografi yang didefinisikan oleh Biro Sensus Amerika Serikat, yang meliputi bagian tengah utara Amerika Serikat.[1] Wilayah tersebut secara resmi dinamai wilayah Tengah Utara menurut Biro Sensus sampai 1984.[2]

Meskipun wilayah tersebut biasanya didefinisikan dalam sejumlah cara, definisi Biro Sensus terdiri dari 12 negara bagian di tengah utara Amerika Serikat: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, dan Wisconsin. Illinois adalah negara bagian paling padat dan North Dakota adalah negara bagian yang memiliki kepadatan terendah. Menurut laporan Sensus Amerika Serikat 2012, populasi Barat Tengah Amerika Serikat berjumlah 65,377,684 jiwa. Wilayah Barat Tengah dibagi oleh Biro Sensus dalam dua divisi. Divisi Tengah Utara Timur meliputi Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio dan Wisconsin, yang semuanya juga merupakan bagian dari wilayah Danau-Danau Besar. Divisi Tengah Utara Barat meliputi Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, dan South Dakota, yang semunya, kecuali Iowa, Missouri dan Minnesota, terletak, setidaknya bagian dari, di wilayah Dataran Great Plain di negara tersebut. Sungai-sungai besar di wilayah tersebut meliputi, dari timur ke barat, Sungai Ohio, Hulu Sungai Mississippi, dan Sungai Missouri, yang merupakan cabang-cabang utama dari utara Sungai Mississippi.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Census Regions and Divisions of the United States U.S. Census Bureau
  2. ^ "History: Regions and Divisions". United States Census Bureau. United States Census Bureau. Diakses tanggal November 26, 2014. 

Sumber primer[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Frederick; John T., ed. Out of the Midwest: A Collection of Present-Day Writing (1944) literary excerpts online edition

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Sisson, Richard, Christian Zacher, and Andrew Cayton, eds. The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (Indiana University Press, 2006), 1916 pp of articles by scholars on all topics covering the 12 states;
  • Aley, Ginette et al. eds. Union Heartland: The Midwestern Home Front during the Civil War (2013)
  • Barlow, Philip, and Mark Silk. Religion and Public Life in the Midwest: America's Common Denominator? (2004)
  • Billington, Ray Allen. "The Origins of Middle Western Isolationism." Political Science Quarterly (1945): 44-64. in JSTOR
  • Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period 1815–1840 2 vol (1951), Pulitzer Prize
  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. Midwest and the Nation (1990)
  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. and Susan E. Gray, Eds. The Identity of the American Midwest: Essays on Regional History. (2001)
  • Cronon, William. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (1992), 1850–1900 excerpt and text search
  • Garland, John H. The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography (1955)
  • Gjerde, John. Minds of the West: Ethnocultural Evolution in the Rural Middle West, 1830–1917 (1999) excerpt and text search
  • High, Stephen C. Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America's Rust Belt, 1969-1984 (Toronto, 2003)
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896 (1971) online free
  • Longworth, Richard C. Caught in the Middle: America's Heartland in the Age of Globalism (2008)
  • Meyer, David R. "Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing Belt in the Nineteenth Century", The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 49, No. 4 (December 1989) pp. 921–937.in JSTOR
  • Nelson, Daniel. Farm and Factory: Workers in the Midwest 1880-1990 (1995),
  • Nordin, Dennis S., and Roy V. Scott. From Prairie Farmer to Entrepreneur: The Transformation of Midwestern Agriculture. (2005) 356pp.
  • Nye, Russel B. Midwestern Progressive Politics (1959)
  • Page, Brian, and Richard Walker. "From settlement to Fordism: the agro-industrial revolution in the American Midwest." Economic Geography (1991): 281-315. in JSTOR
  • Scheiber, Harry N. ed. The Old Northwest; studies in regional history, 1787-1910 (1969) 16 essays by scholars on economic and social topics
  • Shannon, Fred A. "The Status of the Midwestern Farmer in 1900" The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Vol. 37, No. 3. (December 1950), pp. 491–510. in JSTOR
  • Shortridge, James R. The Middle West: Its Meaning in American Culture (1989)
  • Slade, Joseph W. and Judith Lee. The Midwest: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures (2004)
  • Teaford, Jon C. Cities of the Heartland: The Rise and Fall of the Industrial Midwest (1993)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. American Civil War: A State-by-State Encyclopedia (2 vol 2015) 1019pp excerpt
  • Wuthnow, Robert. Remaking the Heartland: Middle America Since the 1950s (Princeton University Press; 2011) 358 pages

Historiografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brown, David S. Beyond the Frontier: The Midwestern Voice in American Historical Writing (2009)
  • Good, David F. "American History through a Midwestern Lens." Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 38.2 (2012): 435+ online
  • Lauck, Jon K. The Lost Region: Toward a Revival of Midwestern History (University of Iowa Press; 2013) 166 pages; criticizes the neglect of the Midwest in contemporary historiography and argues for a revival of attention

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Panduan perjalanan Midwest (United States of America) dari Wikivoyage