Kompleks militer–industri

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Presiden Dwight Eisenhower memperingatkan A.S. tentang keberadaan "kompleks militer–industri" dalam pidato perpisahannya.

Kompleks militer–industri (bahasa Inggris: Military–industrial complex; MIC), atau kompleks militer–industri–kongres,[1] terdiri dari hubungan kebijakan dan moneter yang terbentuk antara pembuat kebijakan, angkatan bersenjata nasional, dan industri senjata yang menopang keberadaan mereka. Hubungan ini meliputi sumbangan politik, persetujuan belanja militer, lobi untuk mendukung birokrasi, dan pengawasan terhadap industri senjata. Kompleks militer–industri merupakan contoh segitiga besi. Istilah ini sering digunakan untuk menyebut sistem di balik militer Amerika Serikat. Istilah ini mulai populer setelah Presiden Dwight D. Eisenhower menggunakannya dalam pidato perpisahannya tanggal 17 Januari 1961.[2] Akan tetapi, istilah ini berlaku juga untuk negara manapun dengan infrastruktur yang sama majunya dengan Amerika Serikat.[3][4] Pada tahun 2011, belanja militer Amerika Serikat lebih besar daripada gabungan belanja militer 13 negara di bawahnya.[5]

Istilah "kompleks militer–industri" kadang-kadang juag mencakup seluruh kontrak dan arus uang dan sumber daya antar individu, perusahaan, dan lembaga kontraktor pertahanan, Pentagon, Kongres, dan cabang eksekutif.[6]

Definisi serupa awalnya dikemukakan oleh Daniel Guérin dalam bukunya, Fascism and Big Business (1936), tentang dukungan pemerintah fasis terhadap industri alat berat. Istilah ini dapat didefinisikan sebagai "koalisi kelompok tak resmi dan berubah-ubah yang memiliki kepentingan psikologis, moral, dan material terhadap kelangsungan pengembangan dan pengelolaan senjata canggih, perlindungan pasar kolonial, dan urusan dalam negeri yang strategis secara militer."[7] Contoh fenomena ini dipaparkan dalam buku Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism (1942) karya Franz Leopold Neumann; buku tersebut menjelaskan bagaimana Nazisme berkuasa di negara yang demokratis.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Karya

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ e.g. Higgs, Robert (May 1995). "World War II and the Military–Industrial–Congressional Complex". 
  2. ^ "The Military–Industrial Complex; The Farewell Address of Presidente Eisenhower" Basements publications 2006 ISBN 0-9766423-9-5
  3. ^ Several Authors "Global Transformations" Stanford University Press 1999, page 108 view on google books
  4. ^ "SIPRI Year Book 2008; Armaments, Disarmaments and International Security" Oxford University Press 2008 ISBN 978-0-19-954895-8 Pages 255–56 view on google books
  5. ^ Plumer, Brad (January 7, 2013), "America's staggering defense budget, in charts", The Washington Post 
  6. ^ "Long-term Historical Reflection on the Rise of Military-Industrial, Managerial Statism or "Military-Industrial Complexes"". Kimball Files. University of Oregon. Diakses tanggal 21 June 2014. 
  7. ^ Pursell, C. (1972). The military–industrial complex. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, New York.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • DeGroot, Gerard J. Blighty: British Society in the Era of the Great War, 144, London & New York: Longman, 1996, ISBN 0-582-06138-5
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. Public Papers of the Presidents, 1035–40. 1960.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. "Farewell Address." In The Annals of America. Vol. 18. 1961–1968: The Burdens of World Power, 1–5. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1968.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. President Eisenhower's Farewell Address, Wikisource.
  • Hartung, William D. "Eisenhower's Warning: The Military–Industrial Complex Forty Years Later." World Policy Journal 18, no. 1 (Spring 2001).
  • Johnson, Chalmers The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic, New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004
  • Kurth, James. "Military–Industrial Complex." In The Oxford Companion to American Military History, ed. John Whiteclay Chambers II, 440–2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Nelson, Lars-Erik. "Military–Industrial Man." In New York Review of Books 47, no. 20 (Dec. 21, 2000): 6.
  • Nieburg, H. L. In the Name of Science, Quadrangle Books, 1970
  • Mills, C. Wright."Power Elite", New York, 1956

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adams, Gordon, The Iron Triangle: The Politics of Defense Contracting, 1981.
  • Andreas, Joel, Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism, ISBN 1-904859-01-1.
  • Cochran, Thomas B., William M. Arkin, Robert S. Norris, Milton M. Hoenig, U.S. Nuclear Warhead Production Harper and Row, 1987, ISBN 0-88730-125-8
  • Colby, Gerard, DuPont Dynasty. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1984.
  • Friedman, George and Meredith, The Future of War: Power, Technology and American World Dominance in the 21st Century, Crown, 1996, ISBN 0-517-70403-X
  • Hossein-Zadeh, Ismael, The Political Economy of US Militarism. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006.
  • Keller, William W., Arm in Arm: The Political Economy of the Global Arms Trade. New York: Basic Books, 1995.
  • Kelly, Brian, Adventures in Porkland: How Washington Wastes Your Money and Why They Won't Stop, Villard, 1992, ISBN 0-679-40656-5
  • Lassman, Thomas C. "Putting the Military Back into the History of the Military-Industrial Complex: The Management of Technological Innovation in the U.S. Army, 1945–1960," Isis (2015) 106#1 pp. 94–120 in JSTOR
  • McDougall, Walter A., ...The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age, Basic Books, 1985, (Pulitzer Prize for History) ISBN 0-8018-5748-1
  • Melman, Seymour, Pentagon Capitalism: The Political Economy of War, McGraw Hill, 1970
  • Melman, Seymour, (ed.) The War Economy of the United States: Readings in Military Industry and Economy, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1971.
  • Mills, C Wright, The Power Elite. New York, 1956.
  • Mollenhoff, Clark R., The Pentagon: Politics, Profits and Plunder. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1967
  • Patterson, Walter C., The Plutonium Business and the Spread of the Bomb, Sierra Club, 1984, ISBN 0-87156-837-3
  • Pasztor, Andy, When the Pentagon Was for Sale: Inside America's Biggest Defense Scandal, Scribner, 1995, ISBN 0-684-19516-X
  • Pierre, Andrew J., The Global Politics of Arms Sales. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.
  • Sampson, Anthony, The Arms Bazaar: From Lebanon to Lockheed. New York: Bantam Books, 1977.
  • St. Clair, Jeffery, Grand Theft Pentagon: Tales of Corruption and Profiteering in the War on Terror, Common Courage Press (July 1, 2005).
  • Sweetman, Bill, "In search of the Pentagon's billion dollar hidden budgets—how the US keeps its R&D spending under wraps", from Jane's International Defence Review, online
  • Thorpe, Rebecca U. The American Warfare State: The Domestic Politics of Military Spending. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.
  • Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.
  • Weinberger, Sharon. Imaginary Weapons. New York: Nation Books, 2006.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Dwight D. Eisenhower