Hukuman mati tanpa pengadilan di Amerika Serikat

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Lompat ke: navigasi, cari

ka|jmpl|The body of George Meadows, lynched near the Pratt Mines in Alabama's [[Jefferson County, Alabama|Jefferson County]] on January 15, 1889.

John Heath's corpse hanging from a pole in Arizona after being lynched on February 22, 1884.
Bodies of three men lynched in Georgia, May 1892.
Six African-American men lynched in Lee County, Georgia, on January 20, 1916

Hukuman mati tanpa pengadilan (bahasa Inggris: Lynching) adalah praktik pembunuhan yang merupakan tindakan di luar hukum. Tindakan ini, di Amerika Serikat muncul setelah Perang Saudara Amerika Serikat pada akhir dasawarsa 1800-an, menyusul adanya emansipasi perbudakan; mereka menolak setelah tahun 1930 tetapi terjadi sampai dasawarsa 1960-an. Hukuman mati tanpa pengadilan, ini kebanyakan ditargetkan kepada keturunan Afrika-Amerika Serikat di wilayah Selatan yang terjadi pada dasawarsa 1890 sampai 1920-an, dan paling sering pada tahun 1892. Dimulai dengan tindakan mafia besar-besaran yang dihadiri oleh ratusan atau ribuan penonton, hukuman mati tanpa pengadilan pada abad ke-20 diawali secara rahasia oleh kelompok-kelompok kecil. Lynching juga dikenal di Old West, di mana penduduk asli Amerika Serikat, Meksiko-Amerika Serikat, dan penduduk keturunan Tionghoa merupakan korban utama.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Nama asli[sunting | sunting sumber]

Istilah "Lynch's Law" – kemudian berubah menjadi "lynch law" dan "lynching" – rupanya berasal dari masa Revolusi Amerika Serikat ketika Charles Lynch, seorang hakim Virginia, memerintahkan hukuman ekstralegal untuk para loyalis. Di daerah Selatan sebelum Perang Saudara, pengikut gerakan abolisionis dan beberapa orang penentang perbudakan menjadi target dari hukuman ini.[7][8][9]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Gonzales-Day, Ken (2006). Lynching in the West, 1850–1935. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3781-9. 
  2. ^ Beck, E. M. & Stewart E. (1990). "The Killing Fields of the Deep South: The Market for Cotton and the Lynching of Blacks, 1882–1930". American Sociological Review 55 (4): 526–539. doi:10.2307/2095805. 
  3. ^ Ryan Hagen, Kinga Makovi, Peter S Bearman, "The Influence of Political Dynamics on Southern Lynch Mob Formation and Lethality", Social Forces. 11/2013; 92(2):757-787. DOI: 10.1093/sf/sot093
  4. ^ Glenda Alice Rabby, The Pain and the Promise: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Tallahassee, Florida, Athens, Ga., University of Georgia Press, 1999, ISBN 082032051X, p. 3.
  5. ^ Julianne Hare, Historic Frenchtown. Heart and Heritage in Tallahassee, Columbia, S.C., History Press, 2006, ISBN 1596291494, p. 68.
  6. ^ Willis, John C. (2000). Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-374-24855-9, pp. 154–155
  7. ^ "Lynching an Abolitionist in Mississippi", New York Times, 18 September 1857. Retrieved on 2011-11-08.
  8. ^ Jonsson, Patrik (2010-01-12). "South Carolina takes aim at lynching law because it hurt blacks". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Diakses tanggal 2016-06-14. 
  9. ^ "SC panel softening lynching law, says it is abused". GoUpstate.com. Diakses tanggal 2016-06-14. 

Buku dan referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Allen, James, Hilton Als, John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwack, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America (Twin Palms Publishers: 2000) ISBN 978-0-944092-69-9
  • Beck, E.M., and S.E. Tolnay, "The killing fields of the deep south: the market for cotton and the lynching of blacks, 1882-1930", American Sociological Review, 1990 – via JSTOR
  • Brundage, William Fitzhugh, Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
  • Budiansky, Steven (2008). The Bloody Shirt: Terror After the Civil War. New York: Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-29016-7
  • Cameron, James. A Time of Terror: A Survivor's Story. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1982. Print. ISBN 0-933121-44-X
  • Curriden, Mark and Leroy Phillips, Contempt of Court: The Turn-of-the-Century Lynching That Launched a Hundred Years of Federalism, ISBN 978-0-385-72082-3
  • Finegan, Terence. A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and South Carolina, 1881–1940. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2013.
  • Ginzburg, Ralph. 100 Years Of Lynching. [1962] Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-933-12118-8
  • Howard, Marilyn K.; with Rucker, Walter C., Upton, James N. (2007). Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33301-7
  • Hill, Karlos K. "Black Vigilantism: African American Lynch Mob Activity in the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1883-1923," Journal of African American History 95 no. 1 (Winter 2010): 26-43, available on JSTOR.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. (1992). The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915–1930. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-929587-82-0
  • Lemann, Nicholas (2005). Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-24855-9
  • McCaskill, Barbara; with Gebhard, Caroline, ed. (2006). Post-Bellum, Pre-Harlem: African American Literature and Culture, 1877–1919. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3167-3
  • Markovitz, Jonathan, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004 ISBN 0-8166-3994-9.
  • Newton, Michael and Judy Ann Newton, Racial and Religious Violence in America: A Chronology. N.Y.: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1991
  • Pfeifer, Michael J. Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
  • Pfeifer, Michael J. (ed.), Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2013.
  • Smith, Tom. The Crescent City Lynchings: The Murder of Chief Hennessy, the New Orleans "Mafia" Trials, and the Parish Prison Mob
  • Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889–1918 New York City: Arno Press, 1969.
  • Thompson, E.P. Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional Popular Culture. New York: The New Press, 1993.
  • Tolnay, Stewart E., and Beck, E.M. A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
  • Willis, John C. (2000). Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-374-24855-9
  • Wright, George C. Racial Violence in Kentucky 1865–1940 by George C. Wright. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990 ISBN 0-8071-2073-1.
  • Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Southern Honor: Ethics & Behavior in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  • Zinn, Howard. Voices of a People's History of the United States; New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004 ISBN 1-58322-628-1.
  • Public Domain Artikel ini menyertakan teks dari suatu terbitan yang sekarang berada pada ranah publikChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "perlu nama artikel ". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]