Dinasti Anushtegin

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Dinasti Anushtegin
خاندان انوشتکین, Khānedāne Ānushtegin
Wangsa indukBegdili[1] atau Qangli atau yang lainnya[2]
Region saat iniAsia Tengah
PendiriAnushtegin Gharchai
Penguasa terakhirSaifuddin Qutuz[3]
TradisiSunni Islam (Hanafi)
Turun takhta
  • 1231 (Kekaisaran Khwarezmia)
  • 1260 (Kesultanan Mamluk)

Dinasti Anushtegin atau Anushteginiyah (Persia: خاندان انوشتکین), juga dikenal sebagai Dinasti Khwarezmia (Persia: خوارزمشاهیان) adalah Dinasti Muslim Sunni[4][5][6] mamluk Turki berasal dari keluarga Bekdili dari Turki Oghuz.[7][8][9][10][11] Dinasti Anushteginid memerintah Kekaisaran Khwarazmian, yang terdiri dari sebagian besar Asia Tengah, Afghanistan dan Iran saat ini pada periode sekitar tahun 1077 hingga 1231, pertama sebagai vassal dari Kekaisaran Seljuk[12] dan Qara Khitai (Liao Barat),[13] dan kemudian sebagai penguasa independen, hingga Invasi Mongol ke Khwarezmia pada abad ke-13.

Dinasti ini didirikan oleh komandan Anushtegin Gharchai, mantan budak sultan Seljuk, yang diangkat sebagai gubernur Khwarezmia. Putranya, Qutbuddin Muhammad I, menjadi Shah pertama dari Khwarezmia.[14] Anush Tigin mungkin berasal dari Suku Begdili dari Oghuz Turki[1] atau kepada Chigil, Khalaj, Qipchaq, Qangly, atau Uyghur.[2]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Fazlallakh, Rashid ad-Din (1987). Oghuznameh (in Russian). Baku. Similarly, the most distant ancestor of Sultan Muhammad Khwarazmshah was Nushtekin Gharcha, who was a descendant of the Begdili tribe of the Oghuz family. 
  2. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth "Anuštigin Ĝarčāī", Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition, (LINK)
  3. ^ Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (1995). Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281Perlu mendaftar (gratis). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46226-6. 
  4. ^ C. E. Bosworth: Khwarazmshahs i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian."
  5. ^ Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"
  6. ^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (3 September 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1]
  7. ^ Negmatov, B. M. "ABOUT THE ARMY OF STATE OF JALOLIDDIN KHOREZMSHAH." CURRENT RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PEDAGOGICS 2, no. 09 (2021): 13-18. p.16. “The Khorezmshahs belonged to the Bekdili clan of the Oguzs. It is natural, therefore, that their black flag bears the seal of this tribe”
  8. ^ Özgüdenli, Osman Gazi. "Hârezmşâh Hükümdarlarına Ait Farsça Şiirler/The Persian Poems of Khwārizmshāh Rulers." Marmara Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi 2, no. 2: 25-51. “The Khwārizmshāh rulers, descended from the Begdili clan of the Oghuz’s”
  9. ^ Ata, Aysu. Harezm-Altın Ordu Türkçesi. Turkey: Mehmet Ölmez, 2002. p.11. “Anuştigin Garçai , Reşidü'd - din'in Cāmi'ü't - tevāriņ'ine göre Oğuzların Begdili boyuna mensuptur”
  10. ^ Bosworth in Camb. Hist. of Iran, Vol. V, pp. 66 & 93; B.G. Gafurov & D. Kaushik, "Central Asia: Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times"; Delhi, 2005; ISBN 81-7541-246-1
  11. ^ C. E. Bosworth, "Chorasmia ii. In Islamic times" in: Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition: "The governors were often Turkish slave commanders of the Saljuqs; one of them was Anūštigin Ḡaṛčaʾī, whose son Qoṭb-al-Dīn Moḥammad began in 490/1097 what became in effect a hereditary and largely independent line of ḵǰᵛārazmšāhsTemplat:Which lang." (LINK)
  12. ^ Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 159.
  13. ^ Biran, Michel, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian history, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44.
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty", (LINK)

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