Anti-otoritarianisme

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

Anti-otoritarianisme adalah kebalikan dari otoritarianisme, yang didefinisikan sebagai "suatu bentuk organisasi sosial yang ditandai dengan tunduk pada otoritas",[1] "mendukung kepatuhan atau ketaatan penuh pada otoritas yang bertentangan dengan kebebasan individu"[2] dan kepada pemerintah otoritarian.[3] Penganut anti-otoritarianisme biasanya percaya penuh pada sistem persamaan di hadapan hukum dan kebebasan sipil. Terkadang istilah anti-otoritarianisme digunakan secara bergantian dengan anarkisme, sebuah ideologi yang melibatkan otoritas yang berlawanan atau organisasi hierarkis dalam mengatur perilaku hubungan antar manusia, termasuk sistem negara.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Pandangan dan praktik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemikiran bebas adalah sudut pandang filosofis yang mengatakan bahwa pendapat harus dibentuk atas dasar logika, akal dan empirisme, ketimbang otoritas, tradisi, atau dogma lainnya.[11][12][13] Penerapan kognitif pemikiran bebas dikenal sebagai "pemikir bebas" (freethinking) dan praktisi pemikiran dalam bahasa Indonesia juga disebut sama yaitu "pemikir bebas" (freethinker).[11][14]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Roget’s II: The New Thesaurus (1995). "authoritarianism". Houghton Mifflin Company. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 24 June 2008. Diakses tanggal 2008-06-25. 
  2. ^ "anti-authoritarian" at dictionary.com
  3. ^ "antiauthoritarian" at The Free Dictionary
  4. ^ "Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short."Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. pg. 28
  5. ^ "IAF principles". International of Anarchist Federations. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 January 2012. The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual. 
  6. ^ "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations-by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power- and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. pg. 1
  7. ^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays.
  8. ^ Ward, Colin (1966). "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 25 March 2010. Diakses tanggal 1 March 2010. 
  9. ^ Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (pg. 9) ... Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
  10. ^ Brown, L. Susan (2002). "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. hlm. 106. 
  11. ^ a b "Freethinker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2012-08-31. Diakses tanggal 2014-01-12. 
  12. ^ "Free thought | Define Free thought at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Diakses tanggal 2014-01-12. 
  13. ^ "Glossary: freethought". International Humanist and Ethical Union. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 17, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Nontracts - FFRF Publications". Archive.is. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2012-08-04. Diakses tanggal 2014-01-12.