Agama rakyat

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Agama rakyat (atau agama lokal, agama daerah) adalah istilah yang digunakan dalam studi agama dan folkloristik untuk menggambarkan berbagai bentuk dan penerapan agama yang dianggap berbeda dari doktrin dan praktik agama yang terorganisasi. Agama rakyat memiliki definisi yang berbeda-beda menurut para cendekiawan. Kadang-kadang juga disebut kepercayaan tradisional, yang mengandung tradisi lokal suatu etnis atau daerah yang bernaung di bawah suatu agama tertentu, tetapi di luar doktrin dan praktik resmi agama tersebut.[1]

Kepercayaan tradisional Tionghoa, Kristen tradisional, Hindu tradisional, dan Islam tradisional adalah contoh agama rakyat yang terkait dengan agama-agama dengan jumlah penganut yang besar. Istilah tersebut juga digunakan—khususnya bagi rohaniwan dari kepercayaan bersangkutan—untuk menggambarkan keinginan seseorang yang jarang mengikuti ibadat, tidak menjadi jemaat gereja atau komunitas keagamaan lain, dan tidak melaksanakan pengakuan iman terhadap kepercayaan tertentu, tapi ingin mengadakan pernikahan atau pemakaman kegamaan, atau ingin membaptis anak mereka (terutama bagi umat Kristen).[1]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Bowman, Marion (2004). "Chapter 1: Phenomenology, Fieldwork, and Folk Religion". Dalam Sutcliffe, Steven. Religion: empirical studies. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. hlm. 3–4. ISBN 0-7546-4158-9. 

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bock, E. Wilbur (1966). "Symbols in Conflict: Official versus Folk Religion". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 5 (2): 204–212. doi:10.2307/1384846. JSTOR 1384846. 
Bowker, John (2003) [2000]. "Folk religion". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727221. 
Kapaló, James A. (2013). "Folk Religion in Discourse and Practice". Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics. 1 (1): 3–18. 
Primiano, Leonard Norman (1995). "Vernacular Religion and the Search for Method in Religious Folklife". Western Folklore. 54 (1): 37–56. doi:10.2307/1499910. JSTOR 1499910. 
Varul, Matthias Zick (2015). "Consumerism as Folk Religion: Transcendence, Probation and Dissatisfaction with Capitalism". Studies in Christian Ethics. 28 (4): 447 –460. doi:10.1177/0953946814565984. 
Yoder, Don (1974). "Toward a Definition of Folk Religion". Western Folklore. 33 (1): 1–15. doi:10.2307/1498248. 

Publikasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Allen, Catherine. The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989; second edition, 2002.
  • Badone, Ellen, ed. Religious Orthodoxy and Popular Faith in European Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
  • Bastide, Roger. The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations. Trans. by Helen Sebba. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.
  • Blackburn, Stuart H. Death and Deification: Folk Cults in Hinduism, History of Religions (1985).
  • Brintnal, Douglas. Revolt against the Dead: The Modernization of a Mayan Community in the Highlands of Guatemala. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1979.
  • Christian, William A., Jr. Apparitions in Late Medieval and Renaissance Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.
  • Gellner, David N. Hinduism. None, one or many?, Social Anthropology (2004), 12: 367-371 Cambridge University* Johnson, Paul Christopher. Secrets, Gossip, and Gods: The Transformation of Brazilian Candomblé. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Gorshunova, Olga V. (2008). Svjashennye derevja Khodzhi Barora…, ( Sacred Trees of Khodzhi Baror: Phytolatry and the Cult of Female Deity in Central Asia) in Etnoragraficheskoe Obozrenie, № 1, pp. 71–82. ISSN 0869-5415. (Rusia).
  • Nepstad, Sharon Erickson (1996). "Popular Religion, Protest, and Revolt: The Emergence of Political Insurgency in the Nicaraguan and Salvadoran Churches of the 1960s–80s". Dalam Smith, Christian. Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism. New York: Routledge. hlm. 105–124. ISBN 0-415-91405-1. 
  • Nash, June (1996). "Religious Rituals of Resistance and Class Consciousness in Bolivian Tin-Mining Communities". Dalam Smith, Christian. Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism. New York: Routledge. hlm. 87–104. ISBN 0-415-91405-1. 
  • Nutini, Hugo. Ritual Kinship: Ideological and Structural Integration of the Compadrazgo System in Rural Tlaxcala. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  • Nutini, Hugo. Todos Santos in Rural Tlaxcala: A Syncretic, Expressive, and Symbolic Analysis of the Cult of the Dead. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
  • Panchenko, Aleksandr. ‘Popular Orthodoxy’ and identity in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia, Soviet and Post-Soviet Identities. Ed. by Mark Bassin and Catriona Kelly. Cambridge, 2012, pp. 321–340
  • Sinha, Vineeta. Problematizing Received Categories: Revisiting ‘Folk Hinduism’ and ‘Sanskritization’, Current Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 98-111 (2006)
  • Sinha, Vineeta. Persistence of ‘Folk Hinduism’ in Malaysia and Singapore, Australian Religion Studies Review Vol. 18 No. 2 (Nov 2005):211-234
  • Stuart H. Blackburn, Inside the Drama-House: Rama Stories and Shadow Puppets in South India, UCP (1996), ch. 3: " Ambivalent Accommodations: Bhakti and Folk Hinduism".
  • Taylor, Lawrence J. Occasions of Faith: An Anthropology of Irish Catholics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
  • Thomas, Keith (1971). Religion and the Decline of Magic. Studies in popular beliefs in sixteenth and seventeenth century England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. ISBN 0-297-00220-1. 

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]