Émile Combes

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Émile Combes
Émile Combes.jpg
Perdana Menteri Prancis
Masa jabatan
7 Juni 1902 – 24 Januari 1905
PendahuluPierre Waldeck-Rousseau
PenggantiMaurice Rouvier
Informasi pribadi
Lahir6 September 1835
Roquecourbe
Meninggal25 Mei 1921(1921-05-25) (umur 85)
Pons, Charente-Maritime
Partai politikRadical Party

Émile Justin Louis Combes (bahasa Prancis: [emil kɔ̃b]; 6 September 1835 – 25 Mei 1921) adalah seorang negarawan Prancis juga Freemasonry[1][2][3] yang memimpin kabinet Bloc des gauches dari Juni 1902 hingga Januari 1905.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Ce que la France doit aux francs-maçons (Laurent KUPFERMAN and Emmanuel PIERRAT - Grund ed. - 2012)
  2. ^ Dictionnaire universel de la Franc-Maçonnerie (Monique Cara, Jean-Marc Cara and Marc de Jode - Larousse ed. - 2011)
  3. ^ Histoire de la Franc-Maçonnerie française (Pierre Chevallier, Fayard ed., 1975)

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Akan, Murat. The Politics of Secularism: Religion, Diversity, and Institutional Change in France and Turkey (2017).
  • Arnal, Oscar L. "Why the French Christian Democrats Were Condemned." Church History 49.2 (1980): 188–202. online
  • Coffey, Joan L. "Of Catechisms and Sermons: Church-State Relations in France, 1890–1905." Church history 66.1 (1997): 54–66. online
  • McManners, John. Church and State in France, 1870–1914 (Harper & Row, 1972), pp. 125–55.
  • Mayeur, Jean-Marie Mayeur and Madeleine Rebérioux. The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War, 1871-1914 (1984), pp. 227–44
  • Merle, Gabriel. Emile Combes (1995), p. 1, 662 p.; standard biography, in French
  • Partin, Malcolm. Waldeck-Rousseau, Combes, and the Church: the Politics of Anticlericalism, 1899–1905 (1969)
  • Sabatier, Paul. Disestablishment in France (1906) online

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jabatan politik
Didahului oleh:
Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau
Perdana Menteri Prancis
1902–1905
Diteruskan oleh:
Maurice Rouvier