Pembantaian Srebrenica

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Jatuhnya Srebrenica dan Žepa
Bagian dari Perang Bosnia
Srebrenica massacre map.jpg
Tanggal 11 Juli25 Juli 1995
Lokasi Bosnia timur
Hasil Pembersihan Etnik Srebrenica dan Žepa
Operasi Deliberate Force
Pihak yang terlibat
Flag of Republika Srpska.svg Republika Srpska

10 th subversif detasemen

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg Bosnia-Herzegovina

Flag of the Netherlands.svg Belanda

Komandan
Flag of Republika Srpska.svg Ratko Mladić

Flag of Republika Srpska.svg Radislav Krstić (Korps Drina)
Milorad Pelemiš[1]
Dražen Erdemović

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg Naser Orić
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg Avdo Palić

Flag of the Netherlands.svg Thom Karremans

Kekuatan
Flag of Republika Srpska.svg 9.450
100-300 mercenaries
10 tangki
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg 5.500-6.200 (Srebrenica)
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg 1.500 (Žepa)

Flag of the Netherlands.svg 370 peacekeepers dan 2 F-16

Korban
300 terbunuh atau terluka parah

2 padded tangki

2.000 terbunuh[2]

35.632 dan 12.000 evacuees (Srebrenica, Žepa→Bosnia)
800 pengungsi (→Serbia)[3][4]
750[5] dan 1.500 tertangkap (Srebrenica dan Žepa)

Pembantaian Srebrenica (disebut juga Genosida Srebrenica) merujuk kepada pembunuhan sekitar 8000 lelaki dan remaja etnis Muslim Bosniak pada Juli 1995 di daerah Srebrenica, Bosnia oleh pasukan Serbia Bosnia pimpinan Jenderal Ratko Mladić. Jenderal Mladic kini menjadi buronan internasional yang telah didapati bersalah karena genosida dan berbagai kejahatan perang lain di Yugoslavia. Pada 27 Februari 2007, Mahkamah Internasional menetapkan kejadian ini sebagai sebuah genosida. Selain pasukan Serbia Bosnia, pasukan paramiliter Serbia Scorpion (kalajengking) juga turut bersalah atas pembantaian ini.

Meskipun demikian, dalam keputusan Mahkamah Internasional tersebut disebutkan bahwa Serbia tidak bersalah atas tindakan genosida. Namun, MI tetap mengecam Serbia karena gagal mencegah ataupun mengadili pelaku pembantaian ini, sekalipun Serbia memiliki hubungan erat dengan militer Serbia Bosnia.

Menurut Komisi Federal untuk Orang Hilang, jumlah korban yang dikonfirmasi sampai saat ini mencapai 8.373 jiwa. Pembantaian Srebrenica dianggap secara meluas sebagai pembunuhan massal terbesar di Eropa semenjak Perang Dunia II. Ia juga merupakan kejadian pertama yang ditetapkan sebagai genosida secara hukum. Akibat bentuk kejadian ini, jumlah sebenarnya, butiran terperinci, dan sebab kejadian dipertikaikan sampai kini. Kejadian ini dianggap sebagai kejadian paling menakutkan dan kontroversial dalam sejarah Eropa modern pasca Perang Dunia II.

Kejadian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gambar yang menunjukkan dua anak dan 4 remaja yang dibariskan di tanah sebelum dieksekusi

Pada tahun 1992, peperangan pecah antara Serbia dan Bosnia. Karena kekejaman dan pembersihan etnis yang dilakukan para tentara Serbia, umat Muslim Bosnia harus mengungsi ke kamp-kamp pengungsian. Srebrenica adalah salah satu kamp terbesar dan dinyatakan oleh PBB sebagai zona aman. Kamp itu sendiri dijaga oleh 400 penjaga perdamaian dari Negeri Belanda.

On August 10, 1995, a month after the fall of Srebrenica, but with in days of the expulsion by the Croats of 220.000 Serbs from Krajina, Madeleine Albright showed some satellite photos at a closed session of the Security Council, held up a photo which she said provided evidence that thousands of Muslim victims had been buried at field near Nova Kasaba, 19 kilometers from Srebrenica. Excavations which took place following the war, however, yielded 33 bodies at Nova Kasaba. Two years after the event, a total of 400 bodies had been found at 20 sites near Srebrenica, an area which had seen bloody fighting over a three year period. To distract attention from the largest ethnic cleansing of the entire Yugoslav civil war, with not only "tacit American approval" but with active American assistance, the Clinton Administration put on a spy photo "peep show" for the UN Security Council. A supplementary objective must have been to dissuade Security Council members from seeking to impose sanctions against an ally of the United States for a criminal offensive in the Krajina on a far greater scale than the Serb capture of Srebrenica[6]

Pada tanggal 6 Juli 1995, pasukan Korps Drina dari tentara Serbia Bosnia mulai menggempur pos-pos tentara Belanda di Srebrenica. Pada tanggal 11 Juli pasukan Serbia memasuki Srebrenica. Anak-anak, wanita dan orang tua berkumpul di Potocari untuk mencari perlindungan dari pasukan Belanda. Pada 12 Juli, pasukan Serbia mulai memisahkan laki-laki berumur 12-77 untuk "diinterogasi". Pada tanggal 13 Juli pembantaian pertama terjadi di gudang dekat desa Kravica. Pasukan Belanda menyerahkan 5000 pengungsi Bosnia kepada pasukan Serbia, untuk ditukarkan dengan 14 tentara Belanda yang ditahan pihak Serbia. Pembantaian terus berlangsung. Pada 16 Juli berita adanya pembantaian mulai tersebar. Tentara Belanda meninggalkan Srebrenica, dan juga meninggalkan persenjataan dan perlengkapan mereka. Selama 5 hari pembantaian ini, 8000 Muslim Bosnia telah terbunuh.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Massacre Near Srebrenica was Staged by French and Muslim Agents
  2. ^ Srebrenica And the Politics of War Crimes
  3. ^ "So to avoid the Bosnian Serb forces to their west, about 800 of the men and boys of Zepa fled east. They crossed the Drina River to Yugoslavia, where they were split between two detention camps"211 Bosnians Free After 8 Months. Why So Long?
  4. ^ "The fact that Milosevic personally intervened and saved 800 Bosnian Muslim men from the enclave who crossed the Drina River into Yugoslavia demanding protection from Milosevic!!! These men where handed over to the Red Cross in Hungary - so that from there they could choose whether or not they wanted to return to Bosnia."Some things to keep in mind about Srebrenica:
  5. ^ "Page 34931:Out of these 25.000 people, there were about 750 men that were held prisoners because their identity was to be checked and it had to be checked that none of them was suspected of crimes against Serbs in the area. Out of these people, 500 were not suspected at all. They were released, and they were able to go towards Kladanj and Tuzla. Two hundred and fifty of them were held back because there was suspicion against them. They were suspected of crimes against the Serbs. They were detained in Zvornik and Batkovic, and it is probable that out of these people there were some summary executions because some Serbs recognised some of the authors of some crimes in their villages, but according to General Mladic, no more than hundred summary executions took place out of this group of people." Patrick Barriot.Wednesday, 12 January 2005
  6. ^ "The Srebrenica Massacre": A Hoax? By George Pumphrey Bonn, Germany November 1998

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]