Triumvirat pertama

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Triumvirat Pertama adalah sebuah aliansi politik informal dari tiga pria berpengaruh antara 60 dan 53 SM, pada akhir zaman Republik Romawi: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey Agung), dan Marcus Licinius Crassus. Julius Caesar adalah politikus berpengaruh dengan faksi populares dan kemudian dikenal karena menaklukan Gaul (58-50 SM). Pompey dianggap merupakan senapati teragung pada masanya dan mengkomandani pasukan dalam Perang Servile Ketiga (73–71 SM) di Italia dan Perang Mitridatik Ketiga (73–63 SM) melawan Kerajaan Pontus di Asia Barat.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber primer
  • Appian, The Civil Wars, Digireads.com, 2014; ISBN 978-1420949568 (book 2 [1]) accessed July 2016
  • Cassius Dio, Roman History, Vol. 3 (Loeb Classical Library), Loeb, 1989, ISBN 978-0674990593 (37 [2]; accessed July 2016 [3] and 39 [4]) accessed July 2016
  • Plutarch, Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans (Complete and Unabridged), Benediction Classics, 2015, ISBN 978-1781395134 (The Life of Pompey [5], The Life of Caesar [6], The Life of Crassus [7], The Life of Cato Minor [8], The Life of Lucullus [9]) accessed July 2016
  • Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Penguin Classics, revised edition, 2007;ISBN 978-0140455168 (Julius Caesar [10]) accessed July 2016
Sumber sekunder
  • Boak, Arthur E.R. (1925). History of Rome to 565 A.D., New York: Macmillan, see [11], accessed 18 April 2015.
  • Boatwright, Mary T.; Daniel J. Gargola & Richard J. A. Talbert (2004). The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195118758, see [12], accessed 18 April 2015.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian (2008). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300126891. 
  • Mitchell, T. N., Cicero, Pompey, and the Rise of the First Triumvirate, Traditio, Vol. 29 (1973), pp. 1–26. [13] accessed July 2016
  • Tatum, J. W., The final Crisis (69–44), in Rosenstein, n., Morstein-Marx, R., A Companion to The Roman Republic (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World), Wiley-Blackwell, 2010; ISBN 978-1444334135
  • Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (2014). "Julius Caesar (Roman ruler): The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul," and "Julius Caesar (Roman ruler): Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bcd," at Encyclopædia Britannica (online), see [14] and [15], accessed 18 April 2015.

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