Suku Nuristan

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Suku Nuristan
Defense.gov News Photo 101030-F-2558S-074 - U.S. Navy Cmdr. Bill Mallory right commanding officer of the Nuristan Provincial Reconstruction Team listens to a Kautiak village leader in the.jpg
Penduduk desa Kautiak di Provinsi Nuristan bersama dengan komandan Amerika Serikat (kanan)
Total populasi
Sekitar 125.000–300.000[1][2]
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
Provinsi Nuristan
Bahasa
Bahasa Nuristan
Agama
Islam Sunni
Kelompok etnis terkait
Kalash

Suku Nuristani adalah kelompok etnis yang berasal dari Provinsi Nuristan di Afganistan timur. mereka menuturkan sebuah bahasa Indo-Eropa yang disebut bahasa Nuristan.[3] Pada pertengahan tahun 1890-an, setelah penetapan garis perbatasan Durand dengan India Britania, Amir Abdur Rahman Khan melancarkan kampanye militer di Nuristan (saat itu dijuluki Kafiristan) yang berhasil mengislamkan penduduk Nuristan;[4][5] semenjak itu wilayah ini disebut Nuristan yang berarti "Tanah Cahaya".[6][7][8][9] Sebelumnya, mereka menganut kepercayaan Hinduisme Kuno.[10][11][12] Beberapa praktik keagamaan non-Muslim masih bertahan di Nuristan hingga kini.

Suku Nuristan berbeda dari suku Kalash dan Kho di Chitral, Pakistan, karena suku Nuristan sudah menjadi Muslim, sementara suku Kalash dan Kho masih menganut kepercayaan Hinduisme Kuno. Wilayah Nuristan telah dilanda perang selama beberapa dasawarsa, sehingga banyak penduduk asli Nuristan yang tewas.[13][14] Nuristan juga telah didatangi oleh pemukim-pemukim dari wilayah sekitar di Afganistan untuk mengisi kekosongan penduduk.[15][16]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Afghanistan - Nuristani". countrystudies.us. 
  2. ^ "Afghanistan population statistics". GeoHive. Diakses tanggal 2016-06-04. 
  3. ^ "Kalash Religion" (PDF). people.fas.harvard.edu. 
  4. ^ "Wlodek Witek (CHArt 2001)". chart.ac.uk. 
  5. ^ Persée : A Kafir goddess
  6. ^ Martin Ewans, Afghanistan: a short history of its people and politics, Harper Perennial, 2002, hlm.103
  7. ^ A Former Kafir Tells His 'Tragic Story'. Notes on the Kati Kafirs of Northern Bashgal (Afghanistan) / Max Klimburg, Eat and West, Vol. 58 – Nos. 1–4 (December 2008), hlm. 391–402
  8. ^ Reflections of the Islamisation of Kafiristan in Oral Tradition / Georg Buddruss Journal of Asian Civilizations — Volume XXXI — Number 1-2 – 2008, Special Tribute Edition, hlm. 16–35
  9. ^ 'The pacification of the country was completed by the wholly gratuitous conquest of a remote mountain people in the north-east, the non-Muslim Kalash of Kafiristan (Land of the Unbelievers), who were forcibly converted to Islam by the army. Their habitat was renamed Nuristan (Land of Light).' Angelo Rasanayagam, Afghanistan: A Modern History, I.B. Tauris, 2005, hlm.11
  10. ^ Minahan, James B. (10 February 2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia (dalam bahasa English). ABC-CLIO. hlm. 205. ISBN 9781610690188. Living in the high mountain valleys, the Nuristani retained their ancient culture and their religion, a form of ancient Hinduism with many customs and rituals developed locally. Certain deities were revered only by one tribe or community, but one deity was universally worshipped by all Nuristani as the Creator, the Hindu god Yama Raja, called imr'o or imra by the Nuristani tribes. 
  11. ^ Barrington, Nicholas; Kendrick, Joseph T.; Schlagintweit, Reinhard (18 April 2006). A Passage to Nuristan: Exploring the Mysterious Afghan Hinterland (dalam bahasa English). I.B. Tauris. hlm. 111. ISBN 9781845111755. Prominent sites include Hadda, near Jalalabad, but Buddhism never seems to have penetrated the remote valleys of Nuristan, where the people continued to practice an early form of polytheistic Hinduism. 
  12. ^ Weiss, Mitch; Maurer, Kevin (31 December 2012). No Way Out: A Story of Valor in the Mountains of Afghanistan (dalam bahasa English). Berkley Caliber. hlm. 299. ISBN 9780425253403. Up until the late nineteenth century, many Nuristanis practiced a primitive form of Hinduism. It was the last area in Afghanistan to convert to Islam—and the conversion was accomplished by the sword. 
  13. ^ Hauner , M. (1991). The soviet war in afghanistan. United Press of America.
  14. ^ Ballard, Lamm, Wood. (2012). From kabul to baghdad and back: The u.s. at war in afghanistan and iraq .
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal October 29, 2013. Diakses tanggal January 4, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal October 4, 2013. Diakses tanggal October 2, 2013.