Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord

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Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord
Bagian dari Perang Revolusi Amerika
Battle of Lexington, 1775.png
Gambaran Pertempuran Lexington
Tanggal 19 April 1775
Lokasi County Middlesex, Massachusetts
Lexington: 42°26′58,7″LU 71°13′51″BT / 42,43333°LU 71,23083°BB / 42.43333; -71.23083 (Lexington)Koordinat: 42°26′58,7″LU 71°13′51″BT / 42,43333°LU 71,23083°BB / 42.43333; -71.23083 (Lexington)
Concord: 42°28′8,54″LU 71°21′2,08″BT / 42,46667°LU 71,35°BB / 42.46667; -71.35000 (Concord)
Hasil Kemenangan koloni; dimulainya Perang Revolusi Amerika
Pihak yang terlibat
Provinsi Teluk Massachusetts  Britania Raya
Komandan
John Parker
James Barrett
Major John Buttrick
William Heath
Joseph Warren
Francis Smith
John Pitcairn
Walter Laurie
Hugh Percy
Kekuatan

Lexington: 77[1][2]
Concord: 400[3]
Akhir pertempuran: 3,800[1]
Departing Boston 700[4]
Lexington: 400[5]
Concord: 100[6]
End of Battle: 1,500[7]
Korban
49 tewas,
39 terluka,
5 hilang[8]
73 tewas,
174 terluka,
53 hilang[8]

Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord adalah pertempuran pertama dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika.[9][10] Pertempuran ini pecah pada tanggal 19 April 1775, di County Middlesex, Provinsi Teluk Massachusetts, di kota Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (sekarang Arlington), dan Cambridge. Pertempuran ini menandai dimulainya konflik bersenjata antara Britania Raya melawan tiga belas koloninya di Amerika Utara.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Coburn, p. xii
  2. ^ The exact number of militia on the field for the conflict is a matter of debate. Fischer (notes on p. 400) cites contemporaneous counts and those of other historians of between 50 and 70 militia, and states (p. 183) that Sylvanus Wood, in an account taken 50 years later, recalled only counting 38 militia. Coburn (p. 60) identifies 77 individuals by name that mustered for the encounter.
  3. ^ Chidsey, p. 29 estimates the colonial force at 500 by the time the confrontation occurs. Coburn, pp. 80–81 counts about 300 specifically, plus several uncounted companies.
  4. ^ Chidsey, hal. 6. This is the total size of Smith's force.
  5. ^ Coburn, hal. 64. This force is six light infantry companies under Pitcairn.
  6. ^ Coburn, hal. 77 and other sources indicate "three companies". Chidsey, p. 28 gives a company size "nominally of 28".
  7. ^ Coburn, hal. 114 gives the size of Percy's force at 1,000. This count reflects that estimate plus the departing strength, less casualties.
  8. ^ a b Chidsey, p. 47 recites all casualty figures except MIA. Coburn, pp. 156–159 recites by town and name the American losses, and by company the British losses, including MIA (from Gage's report). Chidsey, Coburn, and Fischer disagree on some American counts: Chidsey and Fischer count 39 wounded, Coburn 42. Fischer, pp. 320–321 also records 50 American KIA vs Chidsey and Coburn's 49.
  9. ^ French, pp. 2, 272-273
  10. ^ A controversial interpretation holds that the Battle of Point Pleasant, six months earlier, was the initial military engagement of the Revolutionary War. Despite a 1908 United States Senate resolution designating it as such, few, if any, historians subscribe to this interpretation.[1]

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