Opportunity

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Gambaran artis mengenai rover di Mars

MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover - B), juga disebut Opportunity, adalah misi eksplorasi Mars NASA dengan rover. MER-B berhasil mendarat di Meridiani Planum pada tanggal 25 Januari 2004 pukul 05:05 Ground UTC (circa 13:15 waktu setempat), tiga minggu setelah kembarannya, Spirit (MER-A) mendarat di sisi lain planet.


Templat:Use American English

Opportunity
NASA Mars Rover.jpg
An artist's portrayal of Opportunity on the surface of Mars.
Jenis misiMars rover
OperatorNASA
COSPAR ID2003-032A
Situs webJPL's Mars Exploration Rover
Durasi misiPlanned: 90 sols (92.5 Earth days)
Final: 5,352 sols (5498 Earth days from landing to mission end; 15 Earth years or 8 Martian years)
Karakteristik
Jenis wahanaRover
Massa luncurTotal: 1,063 kg
rover: 185 kg
lander: 348 kg
backshell/parachute: 209 kg
heat shield: 78 kg
Cruise Stage: 193 kg
propellant: 50 kg[1]
Awal misi
Tanggal luncurJuly 7, 2003, 03:18 UTC (2003-07-07UTC03:18)[2][1]
Roket peluncurDelta II 7925H-9.5[1][3][4]
Tempat peluncuranCape Canaveral SLC-17B
KontraktorBoeing
Akhir misi
Kontak terakhirJune 10, 2018[5]
Mars rover
Landing dateJanuary 25, 2004,[2] 05:05 UTC SCET
MSD 46236 14:35 AMT
Landing site1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover)[6]
Distance covered45.16 km (28.06 mi)[7]
 

Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, and nicknamed "Oppy",[8][9] is a robotic rover that was active on Mars from 2004 to late 2018.[2] Launched on July 7, 2003, as part of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover program, it landed in Meridiani Planum on January 25, 2004, three weeks after its twin Spirit (MER-A) touched down on the other side of the planet.[10] With a planned 90-sol duration of activity (slightly more than 90 Earth days), Spirit functioned until it got stuck in 2009 and ceased communications in 2010, while Opportunity was able to stay operational for Templat:Age in sols sols after landing, maintaining its power and key systems through continual recharging of its batteries using solar power, and hibernating during events such as dust storms to save power. This careful operation allowed Opportunity to exceed its operating plan by 14 tahun, 46 hari (in Earth time), 55 times its designed lifespan. By June 10, 2018, when it last contacted NASA,[11][12] the rover had traveled a distance of 45,16 kilometer (28,06 mil).[7]

Mission highlights included the initial 90-sol mission, finding extramartian meteorites such as Heat Shield Rock (Meridiani Planum meteorite), and over two years of exploring and studying Victoria crater. The rover survived moderate dust storms and in 2011 reached Endeavour crater, which has been described as a "second landing site".[13] The Opportunity mission is considered one of NASA's most successful ventures.[14]

Due to the planetary 2018 dust storm on Mars, Opportunity ceased communications on June 10 and entered hibernation on June 12, 2018. It was hoped it would reboot once the weather cleared,[15] but it did not, suggesting either a catastrophic failure or that a layer of dust had covered its solar panels. NASA hoped to re-establish contact with the rover, citing a windy period that could potentially clean off its solar panels.[16] On February 13, 2019, NASA officials declared that the Opportunity mission was complete, after the spacecraft had failed to respond to over 1,000 signals sent since August 2018.[17]

Pensiun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Opportunity pensiun setelah 15 tahun berkelana di Mars. Robot tersebut telah berkelana sejauh hampir 45 kilometer.

Pada 10 Juni 2018, Opportunity hilang kontak karena Badai Debu Global 2018 di planet Mars dan memasuki masa hibernasi pada 12 Juni 2018 dengan harapan bisa di nyalakan ulang saat cuaca membaik. Setelah badai pasir menghilang Nasa tidak bisa mengontak Opportunity. Pada 13 Februari 2019, Nasa menyatakan misi Opportunity tercapai setelah wahana gagal merespon lebih dari 1000 sinyal yang dikirimkan sejak bulan Agustus 2018

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama LaunchDetails
  2. ^ a b c Nelson, Jon. "Mars Exploration Rover – Opportunity". NASA. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 24, 2014. Diakses tanggal February 2, 2014. 
  3. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama nasa
  4. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Jonathan's Space Report No. 504
  5. ^ Agle, D.C.; Brown, Dwayne; Wendel, JoAnna (February 13, 2019). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Mission on Mars Comes to End". NASA. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2019. 
  6. ^ Staff. "Mapping the Mars Rovers' Landing Sites". Esri. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 4, 2014. Diakses tanggal May 4, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". nasa.gov. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 30, 2015. Diakses tanggal September 18, 2018. 
  8. ^ "Opportunity Memories | NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2019. 
  9. ^ "Opportunity Memories | NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2019. 
  10. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama january
  11. ^ Malik, T. (June 21, 2018). "Mars Dust Storm 2018: How It Grew & What It Means for the Opportunity Rover". space.com. Future.plc. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2019. 
  12. ^ Rayl, A.J.S. (August 1, 2018). "The Mars Exploration Rovers Update: Dust Storm Wanes, Opportunity Sleeps, Team Prepares Recovery Strategy". planetary.org. Planetary Society. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2019. 
  13. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama wustl
  14. ^ Amos, Jonathan (February 13, 2019). "Nasa calls time on silent Opportunity Mars rover". BBC. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2019. 
  15. ^ Greicius, Tony (September 24, 2018). "Opportunity Emerges in a Dusty Picture". NASA (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal October 15, 2018. Diakses tanggal November 30, 2018. 
  16. ^ Greicius, Tony (August 30, 2018). "Update on Opportunity Rover Recovery Efforts". NASA (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 3, 2018. Diakses tanggal November 30, 2018. 
  17. ^ "NASA's Opportunity Rover Mission on Mars Comes to End". NASA. February 13, 2019. Diakses tanggal February 13, 2019.