Międzymorze

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Salah satu usulan Federasi Intermarium. Warna hijau muda adalah wilayah Ukraina dan Belarus yang berada di bawah kendali Uni Soviet setelah tahun 1921.

Międzymorze (pengucapan bahasa Polski: [mʲɛnd͡zɨˈmɔʐɛ]), juga dikenal dengan istilah Latin Intermarium, adalah sebuah rencana yang dicetuskan oleh pemimpin Polandia Józef Piłsudski setelah berakhirnya Perang Dunia I. Rencana ini ingin mendirikan sebuah federasi[1][2][3][4][5] di negara-negara Eropa Tengah dan Timur. Negara yang diundang untuk bergabung adalah negara-negara Baltik (Lituania, Latvia, Estonia), Finlandia,[6] Belarus, Ukraina, Hongaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia dan Cekoslowakia.[7][8]

Istilah dalam bahasa Polandia Międzymorze berarti "antarlaut" atau "di antara laut", sehingga dalam bahasa Latin diterjemahkan menjadi "Intermarium." [9]

Federasi ini menyerupai Persemakmuran Polandia-Lituania, yaitu sebuah negara yang berdiri dari akhir abad ke-16 hingga akhir abad ke-18 yang terbentang dari Laut Baltik hingga Laut Hitam dan menyatukan Kerajaan Polandia dengan Keharyapatihan Lituania.

Intermarium melengkapi visi geopolitik Piłsudski lainnya, yaitu Prometeisme yang ingin memecah belah Kekaisaran Rusia.[10][11][12][13]

Namun, rencana intermarium dianggap sebagai ancaman oleh Lituania yang ingin mempertahankan kemerdekaannya serta orang-orang Ukraina yang ingin mewujudkan kemerdekaan Ukraina.[14][15][16] Rencana ini juga ditentang oleh Rusia dan negara-negara Barat lain, kecuali Prancis.[17][18][19]

Dua dasawarsa setelah kegagalan rencana besar Piłsudski, negara-negara yang menjadi calon anggota intermarium telah jatuh ke tangan Uni Soviet atau Jerman Nazi, kecuali Finlandia (yang masih kehilangan beberapa wilayahnya akibat Perang Musim Dingin).

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Aviel Roshwald, "Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914–1923", Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-17893-2, hlm. 37
  2. ^ Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-192, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7, hlm. 59.
  3. ^ James H. Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9, hlm. 432
  4. ^ Andrzej Paczkowski, "The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom", Penn State Press, 2003, ISBN 0-271-02308-2, hlm. 10
  5. ^ David Parker, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W. W. Norton & Company, 2001, ISBN 0-393-02025-8, hlm. 194
  6. ^ Mark Hewitson, Matthew D'Auria Europe in Crisis: Intellectuals and the European Idea, 1917-1957 2012 Page 191 "... of the other national movements that had found themselves included in Piłsudski's project, especially the Lithuanians. ... The somewhat nostalgic image of 'Intermarium', the land of cultural and historical diversity destroyed by the wave of "
  7. ^ Miloslav Rechcígl, Studies in Czechoslovak history Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America - 1976 Volume 1 - Halaman 282 "This new policy, which was labeled the Intermarium, or Third Europe Project, called for the establishment of ..."
  8. ^ Fritz Taubert Mythos München: 2002 hlm. 351 "... range détente with Germany and in the chance of creating a Polish-led "Third Europe" or "Intermarium" as illusory."
  9. ^ Tomasz Piesakowski, Akcja niepodległościowa na terenie międzynarodowym, 1945-1990, 1999, hlm. 149: "... przyjmując łacińskie określenie 'Intermarium' (Międzymorze). Podkreślano, że 'Intermarium' to nie tylko pojęcie obszaru geopolitycznego zamieszkanego przez 16 narodów, ale idea wspólnoty wszystkich wolnych narodów tego obszaru."
  10. ^ "Józef Pilsudski, Polish revolutionary and statesman, the first chief of state (1918–22) of the newly independent Poland established in November 1918." (Józef Pilsudski in Encyclopædia Britannica)
    "Released in November 1918, [Piłsudski] returned to Warsaw, assumed command of the Polish armies, and proclaimed an independent Polish republic, which he headed." (Piłsudski, Joseph in Columbia Encyclopedia)
  11. ^ Timothy Snyder, Covert Polish missions across the Soviet Ukrainian border, 1928–1933 (hlm.55, hlm.56, hlm.57, hlm.58, hlm.59, in Cofini, Silvia Salvatici (a cura di), Rubbettino, 2005).
    Timothy Snyder, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine, Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10670-X, (hlm.41, hlm.42, hlm.43)
  12. ^ "Pilsudski hoped to build not merely a Polish nation state but a greater federation of peoples under the aegis of Poland which would replace Russia as the great power of Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Belorussia and Ukraine were all to be included. His plan called for a truncated and vastly reduced Russia, a plan which excluded negotiations prior to military victory."
    Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918–1992, Google Print, hlm. 59, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  13. ^ "Pilsudski's program for a federation of independent states centered on Poland; in opposing the imperial power of both Russia and Germany it was in many ways a throwback to the romantic Mazzinian nationalism of Young Poland in the early nineteenth century."
    James H. Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men, hlm. 432, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9
  14. ^ Oleksa Pidlutsky, "Figures of the 20th century. Józef Piłsudski: the Chief who Created a State for Himself," Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), Feb. 3–9, 2001, available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  15. ^ "The essence of [Józef Piłsudski's "federalist" program] was that after the overthrow of tsardom and the disintegration of the Russian empire, a large, strong and mighty Poland was to be created in Eastern Europe. It would be the reincarnation of the Rzeczpospolita on "federative" principles. It was to include the Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian lands. The leading role, of course, was to be given to the Polish ethnic, political, economic and cultural element. [...] As such two influential and popular political doctrines with regard to Ukraine—the "incorporationist" and the "federalist"—even before the creation of Polish statehood, were based on ignoring the right of the Ukrainian people to self-determination and put forward claims to rule over the Ukrainian territories..."
    Oleksandr Derhachov, editor, Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis, Chapter: "Ukraine in Polish concepts of foreign policy," Kiev, 1996, ISBN 966-543-040-8.
  16. ^ Roman Szporluk, Imperiia ta natsii, Kiev, Dukh i Litera, 2001, ISBN 966-7888-05-3, section II (Ukraina)
  17. ^ "Intermarium Alliance – Will the idea become reality?". www.unian.info. Diakses tanggal 2015-11-01. 
  18. ^ Between Imperial Temptation And Anti-Imperial Function In Eastern European Politics: Poland From The Eighteenth To Twenty-First Century. Andrzej Nowak. Accessed September 14, 2007.
  19. ^ Alfonsas Eidintas, Vytautas Zalys, Lithuania in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918–1940, Palgrave, 1999, ISBN 0-312-22458-3. Google Print, hlm. 78–81

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