Kultus kekaisaran Romawi

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

Kultus kekaisaran Romawi kuno menyanjung para kaisar dan beberapa anggota keluarganya dengan otoritas yang bersifat ilahiah (auctoritas) dari Negara Romawi. Pandangan tersebut berlandaskan pada keyakinan-keyakinan Romawi dan Yunani, dan dirumuskan pada masa Kepangeranan awal Augustus. Kultus tersebut cepat terhimpun di seluruh Kekaisaran dan provinsi-provinsinya, dengan ragam-ragam lokal dalam sudut pandang dan ekspresinya.

Referensi dan bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ando, Clifford (2000). Imperial ideology and provincial loyalty in the Roman Empire (edisi ke-Illustrated). University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22067-6. 
  • Beard, M., Price, S., North, J., Religions of Rome: Volume 1, a History, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-31682-0
  • Beard, M., Price, S., North, J., Religions of Rome: Volume 2, a sourcebook, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-45646-0
  • Beard, Mary: The Roman Triumph, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., and London, England, 2007. ISBN 978-0-674-02613-1
  • Bowersock, G., Brown, P. R .L., Graba, O., (eds), Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-674-51173-6
  • Bowman, A., Cameron, A., Garnsey, P., (eds) The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337, 2nd Edn., Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-30199-8
  • Brent, A., The imperial cult and the development of church order: concepts and images of authority in paganism and early Christianity before the Age of Cyprian, illustrated, Brill Publishers, 1999. ISBN 90-04-11420-3
  • Cannadine, D., and Price, S., (eds) Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies, reprint, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-521-42891-2
  • Chow, John K., Patronage and power: a study of social networks in Corinth, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1992. ISBN 1-85075-370-9
  • Collins, Adela Yarbro, Crisis and catharsis: the power of the Apocalypse, Westminster John Knox Press, 1984. ISBN 0-664-24521-8
  • Elsner, J., "Cult and Sculpture; Sacrifice in the Ara Pacis Augustae", in the Journal of Roman Studies, 81, 1991, 50–60.
  • Ferguson, Everett, Backgrounds of early Christianity, 3rd edition, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-8028-2221-5
  • Fishwick, Duncan, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire, volume 1, Brill Publishers, 1991. ISBN 90-04-07179-2
  • Fishwick, Duncan, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire, volume 3, Brill Publishers, 2002. ISBN 90-04-12536-1
  • Fishwick, Duncan, "Numen Augustum," Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 160 (2007), pp. 247–255, Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, Bonn (Germany).
  • Freisen, S. J., Imperial cults and the Apocalypse of John: reading Revelation in the ruins, Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-513153-6
  • Gradel, Ittai, Emperor Worship and Roman Religion, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-815275-2
  • Haase, W., Temporini, H., (eds), Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt, de Gruyter, 1991. ISBN 3-11-010389-3
  • Harland, P., "Honours and Worship: Emperors, Imperial Cults and Associations at Ephesus (First to Third Centuries C.E.)", originally published in Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses 25, 1996. Online in same pagination: Philipharland.com
  • Harland, P., "Imperial Cults within Local Cultural Life: Associations in Roman Asia", originally published in Ancient History Bulletin / Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 17, 2003. Online in same pagination: Philipharland.com
  • Howgego, C., Heuchert, V., Burnett, A., (eds), Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces, Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-926526-8
  • Lee, A.D., Pagans and Christians in late antiquity: a sourcebook, illustrated, Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-13892-2
  • Lott, John. B., The Neighborhoods of Augustan Rome, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-82827-9
  • MacCormack, Sabine, Change and Continuity in Late Antiquity: the ceremony of "Adventus", Historia, 21, 4, 1972, pp 721–52.
  • Martin, Dale B., Inventing superstition: from the Hippocratics to the Christians, Harvard University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-674-01534-7
  • Momigliano, Arnaldo, On Pagans, Jews, and Christians, reprint, Wesleyan University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8195-6218-1
  • Niehoff, Maren R., Philo on Jewish identity and culture, Mohr Siebeck, English trans GW/Coronet Books, 2001. ISBN 978-3-16-147611-2
  • Nixon, C.E.V., and Rodgers, Barbara S., In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyric Latini, University Presses of California, Columbia and Princeton, 1995. ISBN 978-0-520-08326-4
  • Potter, David S., The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180–395, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-415-10057-1
  • Price, S.R.F. Rituals and power: the Roman imperial cult in Asia Minor, (reprint, illustrated). Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-31268-X
  • Rees, Roger (2004). Diocletian and the Tetrarchy. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. 
  • Rehak, Paul, and Younger, John Grimes, Imperium and cosmos: Augustus and the northern Campus Martius, illustrated, University of Wisconsin Press, 2006. ISBN 0-299-22010-9
  • Rosenstein, Nathan S., Imperatores Victi: Military Defeat and Aristocratic Competition in the Middle and Late Republic. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Ark.CDlib.org
  • Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4051-2943-5
  • Severy, Beth, Augustus and the family at the birth of the Roman Empire, Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-30959-X
  • Smallwood, E., Mary, The Jews under Roman rule: from Pompey to Diocletian: a study in political relations, illustrated, Brill Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-391-04155-X
  • Taylor, Lily Ross, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor, American Philological Association, 1931; repr. Arno Press, 1975.
  • Theuws, Frans, and Nelson, Janet L., Rituals of power: from late antiquity to the early Middle Ages, Brill Publishers, 2000. ISBN 90-04-10902-1
  • Versnel, H S: Triumphus: An Inquiry into the Origin, Development and Meaning of the Roman Triumph, Leiden, 1970.
  • Vout, Caroline, Power and eroticism in Imperial Rome, illustrated, Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-521-86739-8
  • Walbank, Frank W., Selected Papers: Studies in Greek and Roman History and Historiography, Cambridge University Press, 1986 (pp 120–137). ISBN 978-0-521-30752-9
  • Weinstock, Stefan. Divus Iulius. Oxford (Clarendon Press/OUP). 1971.
  • Wiedemann, Thomas. Adults and Children in the Roman Empire, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 1989. ISBN 978-0-415-00336-0
  • Williams, S., and Friell, J.G.P., Theodosius: The Empire at Bay, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 1994. ISBN 978-0-7134-6691-1