Kouloughli

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Kuloughli
Total populasi
Berkisar antara 10 juta[1] hingga 30 juta[2][3]
Persentase keturunan Turki:
Paling tidak 5% populasi Libya[4]
5%-25% populasi Aljazair.)[5][6]
25% populasi Tunisia[6]
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
Bahasa
Agama
Islam Sunni

Kouloughli, juga dieja Koulougli,[7] Cologhli dan Qulaughli (dari bahasa Turki kuloğlu, berarti "anak-anak pelayan" atau "anak-anak budak", dari kul "pelayan/budak" + oğlu "anak lelaki dari") adalah istilah yang digunakan pada masa Kesultanan Utsmaniyah untuk orang-orang yang merupakan keturunan campuran laki-laki Turki dengan perempuan Berber atau Arab lokal di wilayah Pesisir Barbaria yang terletak di pesisir barat dan tengah Afrika Utara.[8][9][10] Istilah ini muncul karena Kesultanan Utsmaniyah menaklukkan banyak wilayah di dunia Arab dan mengirim orang-orang Turki ke wilayah yang telah ditaklukan. Walaupun istilah ini digunakan di Aljazair Utsmaniyah, Libya Utsmaniyah, dan Tunisia Utsmaniyah, istilah ini tidak digunakan di Mesir Utsmaniyah untuk orang-orang Turki di Mesir. Tidak seperti kelompok Prancis Aljazair (pieds-noirs) dan Yahudi Afrika Utara, keturunan Kouloughli telah terintegrasi dengan masyarakat lokal setelah kemerdekaan.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Yeni Şafak. "Kuloğlu'nun ahvâlini sorana." Diakses tanggal 2016-05-15. 
  2. ^ Milli Gazete. "Osmanlı torunları Libya'da dernek kurdu". Diakses tanggal 2016-05-15. Libya’da 1,5 milyonuz ama komşu ülkelerdekilerle birlikte en az 30 milyon Köroğlu Türkü var. 
  3. ^ Anadolu Agency. "Osmanlı torunları Libya'da dernek kurdu". Diakses tanggal 2016-05-15. 
  4. ^ Pan 1949, 103.
  5. ^ Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, hlm. 10, ISBN 1-902339-09-6, ...the Algerian population reached 34.8 million in January 2006...Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% of the population and live mainly in the big cities [accounting to 1.74 million] 
  6. ^ a b Hizmetli 1953, 10.
  7. ^ Britannica (2012), Koulougli, Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online 
  8. ^ Daumas 1943, 54.
  9. ^ Ruedy 2005, 39.
  10. ^ Lorcin 1999, 2.

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abu-Haidar, Farida (1996), "Turkish as a Marker of Ethnic Identity and Religious Affiliation", Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa, Routledge, ISBN 1136787771 .
  • Benkato, Adam (2014), "The Arabic Dialect of Benghazi, Libya: Historical and Comparative Notes", Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik, Harrassowitz Verlag, 59: 57–102 
  • Benrabah, Mohamed (2007), "The Language Planning Situation in Algeria", Language Planning and Policy in Africa, Vol 2, Multilingual Matters, ISBN 1847690114 .
  • Box, Laura Chakravarty (2005), Strategies of Resistance in the Dramatic Texts of North African Women: A Body of Words, Routledge, ISBN 1135932077 .
  • Boyer, Pierre (1970), "Le problème Kouloughli dans la régence d'Alger", Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée, 8: 77–94 
  • Daumas, Eugène (1943), Women of North Africa: or "The Arab Woman", Indiana University Press, ASIN B0007ETDSY .
  • Hizmetli, Sabri (1953), "Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir'in Eğitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış" (PDF), Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 32 (0): 1–12 
  • İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin (2003), "Cross fertilization between Arabic and other languages of Islam", Culture and Learning in Islam, UNESCO, ISBN 9231039091 .
  • Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2002), The Rough Guide to Tunisia, Rough Guides, ISBN 1858287480 .
  • Khalidi, Rashid (1991), The Origins of Arab Nationalism, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231074352 .
  • Kia, Mehrdad (2011), Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0313064024 .
  • Lorcin, Patricia M. E. (1999), Imperial Identities: Stereotyping, Prejudice and Race in Colonial Algeria, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253217822 .
  • Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, ISBN 1-902339-09-6 .
  • Pan, Chia-Lin (1949), "The Population of Libya", Population Studies, 3 (1): 100–125, doi:10.1080/00324728.1949.10416359 
  • Prochazka, Stephen (2004), "The Turkish Contribution to the Arabic Lexicon", Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, ISBN 1134396309 .
  • Ruedy, John Douglas (2005), Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253217822 .