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Siglum: Perbedaan antara revisi

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(←Membuat halaman berisi 'thumb|180px|Contoh teks dari [[naskah Alkitab yang dibuat pada awal abad ke-15.]] '''Siglum''' (bentuk jamak: '''Sigla''...')
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==Abbreviation types==
<!-- this is a translation nearly ''ad litteram'' (a bit reductive) of the book's preface with the addition of one or two English (Old Norse/English) specific notes so single citation should suffice (apart from additions). -->
Adriano Cappelli, author of ''lexicon abbreviarum: dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane'',<ref>Cappelli, Adriano - Lexicon Abbreviaturarum: Dizionario Di Abbreviature Latine Ed Italiane, 1999, Ulrico Hoepli Editore, 6th edition</ref> enumerates the various medieval brachigraphic signs found in Latin and Italian vulgar texts, which originate from the Roman sigla (a symbol to express a word) and Tironian notes. Quite rarely abbreviations did not carry marks to indicate an abbreviation has occurred: if they did they were often [[scribal error|copying errors]]. For example, "e.g." is written with dots, but modern terms, such as "PC", may be written uppercase instead.
Letters lying on their sides, or mirrored (backwards), often indicate female titles, however, a mirrored C, Ɔ, stands generally for ''con'' or ''contra'' (the latter sometimes with a macron above, "Ɔ̄").
To avoid confusion with abbreviations and numerals, the latter are often written with a bar above. In some contexts, however, numbers with a line above indicate that number multiplied by a thousand <!--huh? to the grammar here-->whilst others several abbreviations have a line above, such as "ΧΡ" (Greek letters chi+rho) = ''Christus'' or "IHS" = ''Jesus'', the latter two for a special case of abbreviations known as [[nomina sacra]].
Starting in the 8th or 9th century, single letter sigla grew less common and were replaced by longer, less ambiguous sigla with bars above them.
* A dot, two dots, comma and dot (different from a semicolon), and the Arabic numeral 3-like mark ꝫ were generally at the end of a word on the baseline. After ''b'', they mean ''-us'' (semicolon-like and ꝫ also could mean ''-et''). After ''q'', they form the conjunction ''-que'' (meaning "and" but attached to the end of the last world) with semicolon-like and ꝫ the ''q'' could be omitted. Semicolon-like, in Lombard documents, above ''s'' meant ''-sis''. The dot above median line on an ''h'' – ''hoc''. Dot above ''u'' – ''ut'' or ''uti''. The ꝫ could mean ''-est'', or after ''a'', ''e'', ''u'' vowels meant ''-m'' not ''us'' or ''ei'', if after an ''o'' it meant ''-nem''. In certain papers the ꝫ mark can be confused with a cut ''r'' rotunda (handwritten 4-like).
** A dot to the left and right of a letter gave the following meanings: ''e'' – ''.e.'' ''est'', ''i'' – ''.i.'' ''id est'', ''n'' – ''.n.'' ''enim'', ''q'' – ''.q.'' ''quasi'', ''s'' – ''.s.'' ''scilicet'', ''t'' – ''.t.'' ''tune'', .ꝯ. – ''quondam'', .⁊. ''etiam''.
* A diagonal line, often hooked, mark crossing nearly all the letters gives a different meaning. Commonly a missing ''er'', ''ar'', ''re''. Variants of which were placed above and were ¿-like<!--rotatedsemacam questiontanda mark-->"¿", tilde (crossing ascender) and similar to the ''us'' mark. These, used in various combinations, allow for various uses giving additional meanings.
* 2-like mark, after a ''q'' – ''qꝛ'' ''quia''. After 15th century alone ꝛ ''et'' (being similar to ⁊) and alone with line above ꝛ̄ ''etiam''. After ''u'' and ''a'' at the end of a word (''uꝛ'', ''aꝛ'') ''m'', after ''s'' – ''sꝛ'', ''ſꝛ'' ''et'' or ''ed''.