Hari Hindi

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Hari Hindi
Stamp of India - 1988 - Colnect 165264 - Hindi Day.jpeg
Prangko India tahun 1988.
Nama resmiहिन्दी दिवस; alih aksara: Hindi Divas
KegiatanPeringatan tokoh-tokoh di bidang sastra Hindi
Tanggal14 September
FrekuensiTahunan
Terkait denganHari Hindi Dunia (10 Januari)

Hari Hindi (bahasa Hindi: हिन्दी दिवस, translit. hindī divas) adalah perayaan bahasa Hindi di India pada tanggal 14 September 1949. Hari ini diresmikan ketika sebuah kesepakatan diterapkan selama penyusunan Undang-Undang Dasar India pada bahasa-bahasa yang memiliki status resmi di Republik India.[1][2] Kesepakatan yang biasanya disebut Keputusan Munshi-Ayyangar, setelah anggota komite K. M. Munshi dan N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar dipilih oleh Majelis Konstituen India setelah tiga tahun perdebatan antara dua kubu yang berlawanan. Pendukung Hindi menginginkan bahasa Hindi menjadi satu-satunya "bahasa nasional" India; utusan dari India Selatan lebih memilih bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa resmi dalam undang-undang.[1][2] Keputusan Munshi-Ayyangar menyatakan (i) Hindi menjadi "bahasa resmi" di Pemerintah Federal India; (ii) Bahasa Inggris menjadi bahasa resmi rekanan selama 15 tahun di mana leksikon baku bahasa Hindi akan dikembangkan; dan (iii) bentuk internasional dari Angka Hindu-Arab menjadi angka resmi.[1][2] Ketetapan kesepakatan dimasukkan ke dalam pasal 343–351 Undang-Undang Dasar India, yang mulai berlaku pada 26 Januari 1950.[1][2] Pada tahun 1965, sekian setelah 15 tahun, Pemerintah India mengumumkan bahwa bahasa Inggris tetap terus menjadi "bahasa formal de facto" di India.[1][2]

Acara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terlepas dari acara tingkat lokal di sekolah dan lembaga lain, beberapa acara penting termasuk:

  • Mantan Presiden India, Pranab Mukherjee telah menganugerahkan penghargaan dalam berbagai kategori untuk keunggulan di berbagai bidang yang berkaitan dengan bahasa Hindi pada sebuah acara di Vigyan Bhavan di New Delhi.[3]
  • Penghargaan Rajbhasha dianugerahkan oleh Kementerian, Departemen, Sektor Publik, dan Bank milik Negara.[4]

Kementerian Dalam Negeri India dalam perintahnya tertanggal 25 Maret 2015 telah mengubah nama dua penghargaan yang diberikan setiap tahun pada Hari Hindi. 'Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Puraskar' yang dilembagakan pada tahun 1986 diubah menjadi 'Rajbhasha Kirti Puraskar' dan 'Rajiv Gandhi Rashtriya Gyan-Vigyan Maulik Pustak Lekhan Puraskar' diubah menjadi "Rajbhasha Gaurav Puraskar".[5]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c d e Lerner, Hanna (2016), "The Indian Founding: A Comparative Perspective", dalam Choudhry, Sujit; Khosla, Madhav; Mehta, Pratap Bhanu, The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution, Oxford University Press, hlm. 63–64, ISBN 978-0-19-870489-8, Ultimately, it was the pragmatic consensus-seeking approach that triumphed. On 14 September 1949, after three years of debate, the assembly overwhelmingly approved a compromise resolution, known as the Munshi—Ayyangar formula, which later became Articles 343-51 of the Indian Constitution. Instead of declaring a ‘national language’, Hindi was labelled the ‘official language of the Union’, while English was to continue to be used ‘for all official purposes’. It was decided that this arrangement would apply for a period of fifteen years, during which time Hindi was to be progressively introduced into official use. What would happen at the end of this interim period was left undetermined, with the Constitution providing for the establishment of a parliamentary committee to examine the issue in the future. In addition, the Constitution recognised fourteen other languages for official use (listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution). ... Fifteen years after the enactment of the Constitution, Hindi was still not widely used by the Union government. Following a series of violent riots in non-Hindi-speaking States in the 1960s, Parliament renounced the ideal of an Indian national language. In 1965, when the fifteen-year interim period prescribed by the Constitution elapsed, the government announced that English would remain the de facto formal language of India. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Isaka, Riho (2021), Language, Identity, and Power in Modern India: Gujarat, c. 1850–1960, Routledge New Horizons in South Asian Studies, Routledge, hlm. 126–197, ISBN 9781000468588, Partition may have 'killed' Hindustani, but it had a marked effect on the debates regarding the position of English and provincial languages in the Constitution. The Hindi protagonists became even more insistent on establishing Hindi as the sole national language and imposing it on the non-Hindi-speaking regions to enhance ‘national unity’. In addition, these leaders even began to argue that the Devanagari form of numerals should be used instead of the international form. This was firmly opposed by members from South India. To solve the continuing dispute among the Assembly members, (K. M.) Munshi and N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, a Tamil member of the Assembly, drew up detailed language provisions. These, in the words of the latter, represented a ‘compromise between opinions not easily reconcilable’ (Constituent Assembly Debates 1X 1966: 1319). The provisions were proposed to the Congress on 2nd September 1949 and engendered a heated discussion. It was eventually decided that they would be proposed in the Assembly by Munshi, Ayyangar, and Bhimrao Ambedkar (the Chairman of the Drafting Committee) in their personal capacities, not as an official proposal on behalf of the Drafting Committee. 
  3. ^ "Hindi Has Become An Influencial [sic] Language Globally: Pranab Mukherjee". NDTV.com. Diakses tanggal 2021-01-10. 
  4. ^ "India observed Hindi Divas on 10 January". Jagran Josh. 15 Sep 2014. Diakses tanggal 2014-09-16. 
  5. ^ "Names of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi knocked off Hindi Diwas awards". The Economic Times. 21 April 2015. Diakses tanggal 21 April 2015.