Tengrisme

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Berkas:Shamans Drum.jpg
Sebuah diagran kosmologikal dari sebuah drum shaman pada awal abad ke 20. [1]

Tengrism (terkadang dipergayakan sebagai Tengriism), kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Tengrianism (bahasa Turki: Tengricilik, Old TurkicOrkhon.svg, bahasa Azerbaijan: Tenqriçilik, bahasa Turkmenistan: Taňryçylyk, bahasa Mongolia: Тэнгэр шүтлэг, bahasa Rusia: Тенгрианство, bahasa Tionghoa: 腾格里), adalah istilah modern[2] untuk agama di Asia Tengah dicirikan dengan perdukunan, animisme, totemisme, baik kemusyrikan dan tauhid,[3][4][5] maupun pemujaan leluhur. Secara historis, itu adalah agama utama dari Turki, Mongol, Hongaria dan Bulgaria [6]. Itu adalah agama negara dari negara-negara Turki kuno seperti Khaganate Göktürks, Khaganate Avar, Khaganate Turki Barat, Besar Bulgaria, Kekaisaran Bulgaria dan Timur Tourkia. Sebagai kebangkitan modern, Tengrism telah menganjurkan meragukan untuk mendiskusikan kalangan intelektual bangsa Turki dari Asia Tengah, termasuk Tatarstan, Buryatia, Kyrgyzstan dan Kazakhstan, pada tahun-tahun setelah pembubaran Uni Soviet (1990 sampai sekarang)..[7] Hal ini masih aktif dipraktekkan dan menjalani kebangkitan terorganisir di Yakutia, Khakassia, Tuva, dan negara-negara Turki lainnya dalam Rusia. Burkhanism adalah gerakan kerabat untuk Tengrism terkonsentrasi di Altay. Khukh dan Tengri harfiah berarti "biru" dan "langit" di Mongolia dan Mongolia modern masih berdoa kepada "Munkh Khukh Tengri" ("Blue Sky Abadi"). Oleh karena itu Mongolia kadang-kadang puitis disebut oleh Mongolia sebagai "Land of Blue Sky Abadi" ("Munkh Khukh Tengriin Oron" di Mongolia). Dalam Tengriism Turki modern juga dikenal sebagai Dini Göktanrı, "God of Blue Sky", [8] Turki "gok" (langit) dan "Tanri" (Allah) sesuai dengan khukh Mongolia (biru) dan Tengri (langit), masing-masing .

Tempat suci[sunting | sunting sumber]

Berikut ini adalah danau dan gunung suci bagi penganut Tengrisme:[9]

Puncak gunung Khan Tengri (Kazakhstan)

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The original drawing was made in 1909-1913, during the ethnograpical expeditions in South Siberia, in the Altai mountains. The head of those expeditions was Anokhin A.V. (Anokhin Andrei Viktorovich). The drawing was published in Anokhin A.V. Materialy po shamanstvy u altaitsev (Materials on the Shamanism of the Altai people). Leningrad, 1924, and reprinted as Sbornik Muzeia Antropologii i etnografii Akademii Nauk SSSR (Collection of the museum of Anthropology and Ethnography), vol.4, issue 2. Drawings. Parts of a story of a world picture.
  2. ^ The spelling Tengrism is found in the 1960s, e.g. Bergounioux (ed.), Primitive and prehistoric religions, Volume 140, Hawthorn Books, 1966, p. 80. Tengrianism is a reflection of the Russian term, Тенгрианство. It is reported in 1996 ("so-called Tengrianism") in Shnirelʹman (ed.), Who gets the past?: competition for ancestors among non-Russian intellectuals in Russia,Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8018-5221-3, p. 31 in the context of the nationalist rivalry over Bulgar legacy. The spellings Tengriism and Tengrianity are later, reported (deprecatingly, in scare quotes) in 2004 in Central Asiatic journal, vol. 48-49 (2004), p. 238. The Turkish term Tengricilik is also found from the 1990s. Mongolian Тэнгэр шүтлэг is used in a 1999 biography of Genghis Khan (Boldbaatar et. al, Чингис хаан, 1162-1227, Хаадын сан, 1999, p. 18).
  3. ^ Michael Fergus, Janar Jandosova, Kazakhstan: Coming of Age, Stacey International, 2003, p.91:
    • "[...] a profound combination of monotheism and polytheism that has come to be known as Tengrism."
  4. ^ H. B. Paksoy, Tengri in Eurasia, 2008
  5. ^ Napil Bazylkhan, Kenje Torlanbaeva in: Central Eurasian Studies Society, Central Eurasian Studies Society, 2004, p.40
  6. ^ "There is no doubt that between the 6th and 9th centuries Tengrism was the religion among the nomads of the steppes" Yazar András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history, Yayıncı Central European University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1, p. 151.
  7. ^ Saunders, Robert A. and Vlad Strukov (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. hlm. 412–413. ISBN 978-0810854758. 
  8. ^ "There is no doubt that between the 6th and 9th centuries Tengrism was the religion among the nomads of the steppes" Yazar András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history, Yayıncı Central European University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1, p. 151.
  9. ^ A Spell In Time: Bulgarian Myth and Folklore

Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Türklerin ve Moğolların Eski Dini / Jean-Paul Roux, ISBN 975-8240-70-6
  • Altay Türklerinde Ölüm / Jean-Paul Roux, ISBN 975-997-091-0
  • Tengrianism: Religion of Türks and Mongols (Tengrianizm: Türklerin ve Moğolların Dini) / Rafael Bezertinov (Kitaptan bölümler (İngilizce))
  • Türklerde Maddi Kültürün Oluşumu / Emel ESİN, ISBN 975-997-029-5
  • Türk Mitolojisi, Yazar:Murat Uraz, ISBN 9759792359
  • Fuzuli Bayat, Hoca Ahmed Yesevi ve Halk Sufizminin Bazı Problemleri, Ağrıdağ, Baku, 1997
  • Fuzuli Bayat, Türk Şaman Metinleri, Efsaneler ve Memoratlar, Piramit, Ankara, 2004. ISBN 975-8854-37-2
  • Fuzuli Bayat, "Anadolu Halk Sufizminin Oluşmasında Şamanlığın Rolü", Uluslararası Anadolu İnançları KongresiBildirileri, 23-28 Ekim 2000, Ürgüp/Nevşehir, Ankara, 2001
  • Abdülkadir İnan, Tarihte ve Bugün Şamanizm, Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2000.
  • Esat Korkmaz,Eski Türk İnançları Ve Şamanizm Terimleri Sözlüğü, Anahtar Kitaplar Yayınevi, Istanbul, 2003
  • Bruno J. Richtsfeld: Rezente ostmongolische Schöpfungs-, Ursprungs- und Weltkatastrophenerzählungen und ihre innerasiatischen Motiv- und Sujetparallelen; in: Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde. Jahrbuch des Staatlichen Museums für Völkerkunde München 9 (2004), S. 225–274.
  • Yusuf Ziya Yörükan, Müslümanlıktan Evvel Türk Dinleri. Şamanizm. Ankara, 2005
  • Fuzuli Bayat, Ana Hatlarıyla Türk Şamanlığı, Ötüken Neşriyat, İstanbul, 2006.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brent, Peter. The Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and his Legacy. Book Club Associates, London. 1976.
  • Bruno J. Richtsfeld: Rezente ostmongolische Schöpfungs-, Ursprungs- und Weltkatastrophenerzählungen und ihre innerasiatischen Motiv- und Sujetparallelen; in: Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde. Jahrbuch des Staatlichen Museums für Völkerkunde München 9 (2004), S. 225–274.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]