Taiko

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Pemain drum Taiko di Aichi, Jepang

Kata taiko (太鼓) berarti "drum besar" dalam bahasa Jepang. Di luar Jepang, kata ini digunakan untuk merujuk kepada berbagai jenis drum Jepang (和太鼓, 'wa-daiko', "drum Jepang", dalam bahasa Jepang) dan kepada bentuk seni yang relatif belakangan dalam bentuk ansambel menabuh drum (kadang-kadang lebih khusus disebut, "kumi-daiko" (組太鼓).

Jenis-jenis taiko[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pertunjukan pembuatan drum Taiko

Nagado-daiko (長胴太鼓, taiko yang berbadan panjang) terdiri atas dua potong kulit sapi yang dibentangkan di atas sebuah kerangka kayu (biasanya diukir dari satu potong kayu, kini sering dibuat dari sisa-sisa sebuah gentong kayu) dan diregangkan. Kepala dari tsukeshime-daiko (付締め太鼓, seringkali disingkat menjadi, "shime-daiko" atau "shime" saja) dibentangkan di atas cincin-cincin besi dan dijepit di sekitar badan yang lebih kecil. Tali tsukeshime-daiko ditarik hingga ketat sebelum digunakan setiap kalinya. Okedo-daiko (桶胴太鼓, taiko berbadan gentong, seringkali disingkat menjadi "okedo" atau "oke") dapat dipasang di atas sebuah dudukan dan dimainkan seperti taiko lainnya, tapi biasanya digantungkan melintang ke bahu sehingga si pemain drum dapat berjalan dan sekaligus juga memainkannya. Taiko Jepang lainnya mencakup uchiwa-daiko (内輪太鼓、 taiko kipas), hira-daiko (平太鼓, taiko datar), o-daiko (大太鼓, taiko besar), dan serangkaian instrumen tabuh lainnya dalam ansambel tradisional Jepang noh, gagaku, dan kabuki.

Drum Taiko raksasa, dengan panjang 240cm, diameter maksimumnya 240cm, dan beratnya 3 ton. Dibuat dari satu potong kayu dari pohon yang berusia 1200 tahun

Drum okedo-daiko merentang dari yang kecil dan mudah dibawa, hingga drum yang paling besar dari semua drum Jepang. Berbeda dengan nagado, drum ini dapat dibuat dalam berbagai ukuran, namun TIDAK dalam segala ukuran mengingat konstruksi kayu stavenya. Wilayah Aomori terkenal akan festival Nebuta. Di sini okedo besar dimainkan oleh banyak orang sambil dibawa dengan kereta sepanjang jalan. Okedo mempunyai penopang betta-nya sendiri yang diciptakan oleh Hayashi Eitetsu.

Selain itu, seperti nagado-daiko, okedo mempunyai suara pinggiran, yang disebut "ka." Namun, ketika memainkan pinggiran sebuah okedo, penting bagi pemain untuk memukul hanya bagian yang palin luar dari cincin metalnya dan bukan pinggiran dari tubuh drum itu sendiri. Kayu tipis dan ringan dari okedo khususnya mudah penyok dan akan cepat menurun kondisinya bila dipukul.

Penggunaan taiko dalam perang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Jepang pada masa feodal, taiko sering digunakan untuk memotivasi pasukan, menolong menentukan langkah barisan, dan mengatur perintah atau pengumuman. Menjelang atau pada saat memasuki pertempuran, taiko yaku (penabuh drum) bertanggung jawab untuk menentukan langkah barisan, biasanya dengan enam langkah untuk setiap pukulan drum (ketukan-2-3-4-5-6, ketukan-2-3-4-5-6).

Menurut salah satu catatan sejarah (Gunji Yoshu), sembilan rangkai dari lima ketukan berarti memanggil sekutu ke medan tempur, sementara sembilan rangkai dari tiga ketukan, yang dipercepat tiga atau empat kalinya, adalah panggilan untuk maju dan mengejar lawan.

Istilah terkait[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bachi 
pemukul kayu yang digunakan untuk memainkan drum taiko. (Lihat entri terpisah untuk informasi terinci tambahan.)
Ji 
juga disebut Jiuchi, adalah irama dasar yang digunakan untuk mendukung irama utama, atau O-uchi. Sebagian dari irama yang lebih lazim untuk ji adalah don doko, don ko, atau don go (pola mengayun). Jikata adalah pemain yang memainkan irama ji.
Oroshi 
dicirikan oleh serangkaian pukulan pada taiko. Pemain mulai dengan lambat dengan banyak ma. Pelan-pelan ma (waktu) antara masing-masing pukulan menjadi semakin singkat, hingga penabuh melakukan pukulan yang cepat

Bibliografi Taiko[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Sumber-sumber umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Video[sunting | sunting sumber]

CD musik Taiko[sunting | sunting sumber]