Pertempuran Kleidion

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Pertempuran Kleidion
Bagian dari Peperangan Romawi Timur-Bulgaria
SamuilsDeathBGhistory.jpg
Romawi Timur mengalahkan Bulgaria (atas). Kaisar Samuel tewas karena melihat tentaranya yang buta (bawah).
Tanggal 29 Juli 1014
Lokasi Pegunungan Belasitsa, dekat desa Klyuch, Provinsi Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
Hasil Kemenangan menentukan Romawi Timur
Pihak yang terlibat
Kekaisaran Bulgaria Pertama Kekaisaran Romawi Timur
Komandan
Samuel dari Bulgaria
Gabriel Radomir
Basil II
Nikephoros Xiphias
Konstantinus Diogenes
Theophylaktos Botaneiates
Kekuatan
c. 20.000 Tidak diketahui
Korban
Paling tidak 15.000 Sedikit

Pertempuran Kleidion (atau Clidium, dari nama abad pertengahan desa Klyuch, yang berarti "kunci"; juga dikenal dengan nama Pertempuran Belasitsa) berlangsung pada 29 Juli 1014 antara Kekaisaran Bulgaria melawan Kekaisaran Romawi Timur. Pertempuran ini merupakan puncak dari peperangan yang berlangsung hampir selama setengah abad antara Kaisar Bulgaria Samuel melawan Kaisar Romawi Timur Basil II pada akhir abad ke-10 dan awal abad ke-11. Pertempuran ini berhasil dimenangkan oleh Romawi Timur.

Pertempuran ini meletus di lembah pegunungan Belasitsa dan Ograzhden di dekat desa Klyuch. Pertempuran yang menentukan berlangsung pada 29 Juli ketika jenderal Romawi Timur Nikephoros Xiphias melancarkan serangan belakang. Bulgaria mengalami kekalahan besar; tentara Bulgaria ditangkap dan dibutakan atas perintah Basil II, yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama "pembantai Bulgar." Samuel berhasil selamat, namun meninggal dua bulan kemudian karena serangan jantung, yang konon karena melihat tentara Bulgaria yang telah dibutakan.

Meskipun pertempuran ini tidak mengakhiri Kekaisaran Bulgaria Pertama, pertempuran ini mengurangi kapabilitas negara tersebut dalam menahan serangan Romawi Timur. Penerus Samuel tidak dapat menahan serangan Romawi Timur, dan akhirnya pada tahun 1018 Kekaisaran Bulgaria dihancurkan oleh Basil II.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

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