Italia Amerika

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Italia Amerika
Fiorello LaGuardia 140x190.jpgFrancesca Cabrini (collage crop).JPGFrank Sinatra (1960).jpg
DiMaggio cropped 140x190.jpgNancy Pelosi 140x190.jpg010 alito 140x190.jpg
Rudy Giuliani 140x190.jpgGeraldine Ferraro (collage crop).jpgEnrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg
Italia Amerika yang terkenal:
Fiorello La Guardia · Francesca Cabrini · Frank Sinatra
Joe DiMaggio · Nancy Pelosi · Samuel Alito
Rudy Giuliani · Geraldine Ferraro · Enrico Fermi
Jumlah populasi

17,815,289
6.0% of the US population (2008)

Kawasan dengan konsentrasi signifikan
Bahasa
Inggris · Italia · Sisilia · Napoli, dialek Italia lain
Agama
Katolik Roma, dengan Protestan dan minoritas Yahudi.
Kelompok etnik terdekat
Orang Italia, Italia Kanada, Italia Argentina, Italia Brazil, Italia Meksiko, Italia Australia, Italia Britania

Italia Amerika (tunggal: italoamericano, jamak: italoamericani, adalah warga Amerika Serikat keturunan Italia, juga dapat merujuk kepada seseorang yang memiliki kewarganegaraan ganda Italia dan Amerika. Italia Amerika adalah kelompok etnis Eropa terbesar keempat di Amerika Serikat (tidak termasuk mereka yang menyebut komunitas mereka sebagai orang Amerika, etnonim yang digunakan oleh banyak orang di Amerika Serikat). Secara keseluruhan, kelompok Italia Amerika menempati peringkat tujuh di bawah warga keturunan Jerman, Irlandia, Afrika Amerika, Inggris, Amerika dan Meksiko).

Sekitar 5,5 juta orang dari Italia berimigrasi ke AS 1820-2004. Gelombang terbesar imigrasi terjadi pada periode antara 1880 dan 1920, membawa lebih dari 4 juta orang Italia ke Amerika. Sekitar 80% dari imigran Italia berasal dari Italia Selatan, terutama dari Sisilia dan Napoli, bekas Kerajaan Dua Sisilia. Wilayah ini terutama di pedesaan, mengalami kelebihan penduduk dan ekonomi terbelakang, sedikit manfaat dari proses industrialisasi yang lebih terkonsentrasi di bagian utara negara itu setelah penyatuan Italia. Pemerintah Italia bahkan mendorong emigrasi petani tak bertanah untuk meringankan tekanan ekonomi di Italia Selatan. Di Amerika Serikat, orang-orang Italia yang pada awalnya memulai kehidupan baru mereka sebagai pekerja manual dan tidak terampil. Warga Italia Amerika bertahap berpindah status sosial dari tangga yang lebih rendah di awal 1900-an ke tingkat yang sebanding dengan rata-rata nasional pada tahun 1970. Masyarakat Italia Amerika pada umumnya ditandai dengan hubungan yang kuat dengan keluarga, Gereja Katolik, lembaga komunitas dan partai politik. Hari ini, lebih dari 17,8 juta orang Amerika mengaku memiliki keturunan Italia.

Pengalaman orang Italia dan keturunan mereka di Amerika sangat bervariasi, tergantung pada wilayah yang mereka berimigrasi, dan era di mana mereka berimigrasi. Mereka membantu membentuk Amerika dan, pada gilirannya, dibentuk olehnya. Tidak ada identitas umum dibagi oleh semua orang Amerika Italia, melainkan, mereka adalah sebagai beragam seperti penduduk Amerika itu sendiri. Mereka unggul dalam semua bidang usaha, dan telah menjadi terkenal dalam politik, bisnis, hukum, kedokteran, televisi, sastra, pendidikan, seni rupa, seni kuliner, ilmu pengetahuan, militer, teknik, olahraga, musik, dan hiburan.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Giordano, Paolo A. and Anthony Julian Tamburri, eds. "Beyond the Margin: Essays on Italian Americana" (1998).
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  • Lagumina, Salvatore J. et al. eds. The Italian American Experience: An Encyclopedia (2000)
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  • Leone, Castaldo. Italians in America (2001) Milanostampa, S.p.A.: Mockingbird Press
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  • Luconi, Stefano. From Paesani to White Ethnics: The Italian Experience in Philadelphia (2001)
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  • Luconi, Stefano, "Is Italian-American History an Account of the Immigrant Experience with the Politics Left Out? Some Thoughts on the Political Historiography about Italian Americans", in Italian Americans in the Third Millennium: Social Histories and Cultural Representations, ed. Paolo A. Giordano and Anthony Julian Tamburri, 55–72. (New York: American Italian Historical Association, 2009).
  • Luconi, Stefano, “Contested Loyalties: World War II and Italian Americans’ Ethnic Identity,” Italian Americana 30 (2012), 151–67.
  • Nelli, Humbert S. The Business of Crime: Italians and Syndicate Crime in the United States (1981)
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  • Miller, James, with Cheryl Beattie-Repetti and Joseph Tropea. Support and Struggle (1986) Staten Island: The American Italian Historical Association
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  • Orsi, Robert A. The Madonna of 115th Street: Faith and Community in Italian Harlem, 1880-1950 (3rd ed. 2010), excerpt and text search, influential study of family life
  • Parati, Graziella, and Anthony Julian Tamburri, eds. The Cultures of Italian Migration: Diverse Trajectories and Discrete Perspectives (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; 2011) 274 pages; essays by literary scholars, historians, and others on the migrant experience to and from Italy.
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Primary sources
  • Moquin, Wayne, ed. A Documentary History of Italian Americans (1974)
  • Tamburri, Anthony Julian, Paolo A. Giordano, Fred L. Gardaphé, eds. From the Margin: Writings in Italian Americana (2000, 2nd ed.)

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]