Bahasa Inggris Amerika

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Prevalensi bahasa Inggris di Amerika Serikat. Biru gelap menandakan konsentrasi tinggi penutur asli bahasa Inggris di negara bagian tersebut.

Bahasa Inggris Amerika adalah sekelompok dialek bahasa Inggris yang banyak dipertuturkan di Amerika Serikat. Sekitar dua per tiga penutur asli bahasa Inggris dunia tinggal di Amerika Serikat.[1]

Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa paling umum di Amerika Serikat. Meski pemerintah federal A.S. tidak memiliki bahasa resmi, bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa umum yang digunakan oleh pemerintah federla dan dianggap sebagai bahasa de facto Amerika Serikat karena sering digunakan. Bahasa Inggris diberikan status resmi oleh 28 dari 50 pemerintahan negara bagian.[2][3] Penggunaan bahasa Inggris di Amerika Serikat adalah hasil kolonisasi bangsa Inggris. Gelombang pertama pendatang penutur bahasa Inggris tiba di Amerika Utara pada abad ke-17. Sejak itu, bahasa Inggris Amerika telah dipengaruhi oleh bahasa-bahasa Amerika Pribumi, bahasa kolonis Eropa dan non-Eropa, imigran dan tetangga, dan bahasa budak asal Afrika Barat.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Crystal, David (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6. 
  2. ^ Crawford, James. "Language Legislation in the U.S.A.". languagepolicy.net. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  3. ^ "States with Official English Laws". us-english.org. Retrieved 2011-10-03.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bartlett, John R. (1848). Dick of Americanisms: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Usually Regarded As Peculiar to the United States. New York: Bartlett and Welford. 
  • Ferguson, Charles A.; & Heath, Shirley Brice (Eds.). (1981). Language in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Finegan, Edward. (2004). American English and its distinctiveness. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 18–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Finegan, Edward; & Rickford, John R. (Eds.). (2004). Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Frazer, Timothy (Ed.). (1993). Heartland English. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
  • Glowka, Wayne; & Lance, Donald (Eds.). (1993). Language variation in North American English. New York: Modern Language Association.
  • Garner, Bryan A. (2003). Garner's Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kenyon, John S. (1950). American pronunciation (10th ed.). Ann Arbor: George Wahr.
  • Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Mesthrie, Rajend; & Upton, Clive (Eds.). (2004). A handbook of varieties of English: Morphology and syntax (Vol. 2). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Labov, William; Sharon Ash; Charles Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8. 
  • Lippi-Green, Rosina. (1997). English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. New York: Routedge.
  • MacNeil, Robert; & Cran, William. (2005). Do you speak American?: A companion to the PBS television series. New York: Nan A. Talese, Doubleday.
  • Mathews, Mitford M. (ed.) (1951). A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Mencken, H. L. (1936, repr. 1977). The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States (4th edition). New York: Knopf.  (1921 edition online: www.bartleby.com/185/).
  • Simpson, John (ed.) (1989). Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Schneider, Edgar (Ed.). (1996). Focus on the USA. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Schneider, Edgar W.; Kortmann, Bernd; Burridge, Kate; Mesthrie, Rajend; & Upton, Clive (Eds.). (2004). A handbook of varieties of English: Phonology (Vol. 1). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Thomas, Erik R. (2001). An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English. Publication of American Dialect Society (No. 85). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • Thompson, Charles K. (1958). An introduction to the phonetics of American English (2nd ed.). New York: The Ronald Press Co.
  • Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah. (2002). International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English, 4th ed. London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-80834-9.
  • Wolfram, Walt; & Schilling-Estes, Natalie. (2005). American English: Dialects and variation. 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Basil Blackwell.

Sejarah bahasa Inggris Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Algeo, John (Ed.). (2001). The Cambridge history of the English language: English in North America (Vol. 6). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bailey, Richard W. (1991). Images of English: A cultural history of the language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Bailey, Richard W. (2004). American English: Its origins and history. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 3–17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bryson, Bill. (1994). Made in America: An informal history of the English language in the United States. New York: William Morrow.
  • Finegan, Edward. (2006). English in North America. In R. Hogg & D. Denison (Eds.), A history of the English language (pp. 384–419). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kretzschmar, William A. (2002). American English: Melting pot or mixing bowl? In K. Lenz & R. Möhlig (Eds.), Of dyuersitie and change of language: Essays presented to Manfred Görlach on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday (pp. 224–239). Heidelberg: C. Winter.
  • Mathews, Mitford. (1931). The beginnings of American English. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Read, Allen Walker. (2002). Milestones in the history of English in America. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Variasi regional[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Allen, Harold B. (1973–6). The linguistic atlas of the Upper Midwest (3 Vols). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Atwood, E. Bagby. (1953). A survey of verb forms in the eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Carver, Craig M. (1987). American regional dialects: A word geography. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10076-9
  • Kurath, Hans, et al. (1939–43). Linguistic atlas of New England (6 Vols). Providence: Brown University for the American Council of Learned Societies.
  • Kurath, Hans. (1949). A word geography of the eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Kurath, Hans; & McDavid, Raven I., Jr. (1961). The pronunciation of English in the Atlantic states. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. (1979). Dialects in culture. W. Kretzschmar (Ed.). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
  • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. (1980). Varieties of American English. A. Dil (Ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Metcalf, Allan. (2000). How we talk: American regional English today Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-04362-4
  • Pederson, Lee; McDaniel, Susan L.; & Adams, Carol M. (eds.). (1986–92). Linguistic atlas of the gulf states (7 Vols). Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.

Variasi sosial[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bailey, Guy; Maynor, Natalie; & Cukor-Avila, Patricia (Eds.). (1991). The emergence of Black English: Text and commentary. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Green, Lisa. (2002). African American English: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Labov, William. (1972). Language in the inner city: Studies in Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Lanehart, Sonja L. (Ed.). (2001). Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Mufwene, Salikoko; Rickford, John R.; Bailey, Guy; & Baugh, John (Eds.). (1998). African American Vernacular English. London: Routledge.
  • Rickford, John R. (1999). African American Vernacular English: Features, evolution, and educational implications. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Wolfram, Walt. (1969). A sociolinguistic description of Detroit negro speech. Urban linguistic series (No. 5). Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.
  • Wolfram, Walt; & Thomas, Erik. (2002). The development of African American English: Evidence from an isolated community. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

India Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Leap, William L. (1993). American Indian English. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Latin Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bayley, Robert; & Santa Ana, Otto. (2004). Chicano English grammar. In B. Kortmann, E. W. Schneider, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie, & C. Upton (Eds.), A handbook of varieties of English: Morphology and syntax (Vol. 2, pp. 167–183). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Fought, Carmen. (2003). Chicano English in context. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Galindo, Letticia D. (1987). Linguistic influence and variation of the English of Chicano adolescents in Austin, Texas. (PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin).
  • Santa Ana, Otto. (1993). Chicano English and the Chicano language setting. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15 (1), 1–35.
  • Santa Ana, Otto; & Bayley, Robert. (2004). Chicano English phonology. In E. W. Schneider, B. Kortmann, K. Burridge, R. Mesthrie, & C. Upton (Eds.), A handbook of varieties of English: Phonology (Vol. 1, pp. 407–424). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Wolfram, Walt. (1974). Sociolinguistic aspects of assimilation: Puerto Rican English in New York City. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Media visual[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Cran, William (Producer, Director, Writer); Buchanan, Christopher (Producer); & MacNeil, Robert (Writer). (2005). Do you speak American? [Documentary]. New York: Center for New American Media.
  • Kolker, Andrew; & Alvarez, Louis (Producers, Directors). (1988). American tongues: A documentary about the way people talk in the U.S. [Documentary]. Hohokus, NJ: Center for New American Media.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]