Bangsa Khitan

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Bangsa Khitan (Tionghoa: 契丹; pinyin: Qìdān), atau Khitai, adalah bangsa nomadik yang terletak di Mongolia dan Manchuria (Cina Timur Laut) dari abad ke-4. Mereka mendominasi wilayah di Tiongkok Utara pada abad ke-10 dibawah Dinasti Liao, tetapi meninggalkan sedikit relik yang masih ada hingga kini.[1] Setelah runtuhnya Liao tahun 1125, banyak Khitan pindah ke barat dan mendirikan negara Kara Khitai yang akan dihancurkan oleh Kekaisaran Mongol tahun 1218.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • MATSUI, Hitoshi 松井等 (Japan). "Qidan boxing shi 契丹勃興史 (History of the rise of the Khitan)". Mamden chiri-rekishi kenkyu hokoku 1 (1915).
    Translated into Chinese by Liu, Fengzhu 劉鳳翥. In Minzu Shi Yiwen Ji 民族史譯文集 (A Collection of Translated Papers on Ethnic Histories) 10 (1981). Repr. in: Sun, Jinji et al. 1988 (vol. 1), pp. 93-141
  • Chen, Shu 陳述. Qidan Shi Lunzheng Gao 契丹史論證稿 (A Study on the History of the Khitan). Beijing: Zhongyang Yanjiu Yuan Shixue Yanjiu Suo 中央研究院史學研究所, 1948.
  • Chen, Shu 陳述. Qidan Shehui Jingji Shi Gao 契丹社會經濟史稿 (A Study on the Khitan's Social Economical History). Shanghai: Sanlian Chuban She 三聯出版社, 1963.
  • Feng, Jiasheng 1933.
  • Shu, Fen (舒焚), Liaoshi Gao 遼史稿 (An History of the Liao). Wuhan: Hubei Renmin Chuban She 湖北人民出版社, 1984
  • WITTFOGEL, Karl & FENG, Chia-sheng. History of Chinese Society: Liao (907-1125). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1949.
  • Biran, Michal. The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World, ISBN 0-521-84226-3
  • Wei Shu 魏史 (Dynastic History of the Northern Wei Dynasty): Wei, Shou 魏收 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1973.
  • Xin Wudai Shi (XWDS) 新五代史 (New Dynastic History of the Five Dynasties): Ouyang, Xiu 歐陽修 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1974.
  • Sui Shu (SS) 隋書 (Dynastic History of the Sui Dynasty): Wei Zheng 魏徵 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1973.
  • Jiu Tangshu (JTS) 舊唐書 (Old Dynastic History of Tang Dynasty): Liu, Xu 劉昫 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1975.
  • Xin Tangshu (XTS) 新唐書 (New Dynastic History of the Tang Dynasty): Ouyang, Xiu 歐陽修 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1975
  • Liao Shi (LS) 遼史 (Dynastic History of the Khitan Liao Dynasty): Tuotuo 脱脱 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1974
  • Song Shi 宋史 (History of Song): Tuotuo 脫脫 et al. eds. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1974
  • Zizhi Tongjian (ZZTJ) 資治通鑒 (Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government): Sima, Guang 司馬光 ed. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中华书局, 1956
  • Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. hlm. 31–71. ISBN 0674012127. 
  • EBREY, Patricia Buckley (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X. 
  • TWITCHETT, Denis (1994). The Cambridge History of China: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 816. ISBN 0-521-24331-9.  (pp.43-153)
  • Khitans
  • Khitans on scholar.google.com

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Kingdom of Khitans: Sudden Rise, Sudden Fall". China Daily. 2003-06-19. Diakses 2008-12-15.