Pendudukan Soviet di Rumania

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Pendudukan Soviet di Rumania merujuk[1] pada periode dari 1944 hingga Agustus 1958, dimana tentara Uni Soviet menduduki wilayah Rumania.

Selama serangan Uni Soviet tahun 1944, tentara Soviet menduduki Rumania. Bagian barat laut Moldavia diduduki dari Mei hingga Agustus ketika Rumania masih menjadi sekutu Jerman Nazi. Sisa wilayah Rumania diduduki setelah Rumania berpihak kepada sekutu, sebagai akibat dari kudeta yang dilancarkan oleh Raja Mihai pada 23 Agustus 1944.

Konvensi gencatan senjata dan Perjanjian Perdamaian Paris 1947 memberikan hak kepada tentara Uni Soviet untuk tetap berada di Rumania, yang berlangsung hingga tahun 1958, dengan jumlah tentara mencapai 615.000 pada tahun 1946.[2]

Pengarang Soviet dan Konstitusi Rumania 1952 menyatakan peristiwa ini sebagai "pembebasan Rumania oleh tentara Soviet".[3] Di sisi lain, sumber Rumania dan Barat menggunakan istilah "pendudukan Soviet di Rumania".

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The term "occupation" is widely used by Western and post-Revolutionary Romanian historians. Examples include:
    • "Soviet forces occupied Romania in 1944 and stayed for more than a decade." Roger E. Kirk, Mircea Răceanu, Romania Versus the United States: Diplomacy of the Absurd, 1985-1989, p. 2. Palgrave Macmillan, 1994, ISBN 0-312-12059-1.
    • "Soviet occupation troops had been withdrawn in 1958." Gordon L. Rottman, Ron Volstad, Warsaw Pact Ground Forces, p. 45. Osprey, 1987, ISBN 0-85045-730-0.
    • "The country had to endure a long Soviet occupation (until 1958), and to pay the Soviets massive reparations." Lucian Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p. 106. Reaktion Books, 2001, ISBN 1-86189-103-2.
    • "Soviet occupation forces in Romania [allowed for] unlimited interference in Romanian political life." Verona (Military Occupation and Diplomacy: Soviet Troops in Romania, 1944-1958), p. 31.
    • "In June 1958, based on complex arrangements between the Romanians, the Russians, and the Yugoslavs, the occupying Soviet Army units left Romania." Tismăneanu, p. 25. "Romanian communists remained an unappealing marginal group until the occupation of the country by the Red Army in 1944." ibid., p. 59. "The Soviet Army occupied Romanian territory and ... the Soviet-controlled political formation called the RCP was exploiting this state of affairs to establish a Stalinist regime as soon as possible, whatever the human cost." ibid., p. 91.
    • "The primary focus is the occupation of the rest of Romania from 1944 to 1958...There is little doubt that the Soviet occupation had a devastating economic, political, and social impact on Romania." Aurel Braun, review of The Red Army in Romania, in Slavic Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, 146-147, Spring 2002.
    • "The withdrawal of Soviet troops signified the end of the country's direct military occupation, which lasted 14 years." Istoria României în date, p. 553. Editura Enciclopedică, Bucharest, 2003, ISBN 973-45-0432-0
    • "Wisner (who had, as an OSS officer, witnessed the brutal Soviet occupation of Romania)", David F. Rudgers, "The origins of covert action", Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 35, no. 2 (2000), 249–262
    • Flori Stănescu, Dragoş Zamfirescu, Ocupaţia sovietică în România - Documente 1944-1946 (The Soviet Occupation in Romania - Documents 1944-1946). Vremea, 1998, ISBN 973-9423-17-5.
    • "The first period of the communist regime in Romania, 1944-1958 is defined by Stefan Fisher Galati as the loss of national identity by the destruction of the "bourgeois nationalist" legacy and the diminution of Romania's national sovereignty under a virtual Soviet occupation." Constantin Iordachi, "The Anatomy of a Historical Conflict: Romanian-Hungarian Diplomatic Conflict in the 1980's", MA Thesis, Central European University, 1995-1996.
  2. ^ Verona, pp. 49–51
  3. ^ (Rumania) Constitutia Republicii Populare Romane 1952

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]