Daftar lokasi Peradaban Lembah Sungai Indus

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

Pada tahun 2008 telah ditemukan lebih dari 1000 lokasi atau situs Peradaban Lembah Sungai Indus,[1] di mana 406 situs terletak di Pakistan dan 616 situs di India,[2] sementara beberapa situs di Afganistan diyakini merupakan koloni perdagangan.[3]

Daftar penemuan modern[sunting | sunting sumber]

Daftar lokasi Lembah Indus Peradaban yang telah ditemukan:

Situs Distrik Provinsi/Negara bagian
Negara Ekskavasi/Penemuan Foto
Alamgirpur Meerut District Uttar Pradesh India Impresi kain pada pipa
Amri, Sindh Dadu District Sindh Pakistan Bekas-bekas binatang badak
Babar Kot Saurashtra Gujarat India Tembok batu pertahanan,[4] bekas-bekas tumbuhan millets & gram.[5]
Balu, Haryana Fatehabad Haryana India Bukti paling kuno adanya bawang putih.[6]
Banawali Fatehabad District Haryana India Barley, patung terracotta sebuah bajak
Bargaon Saharanpur District[7] Uttar Pradesh India
Baror Sri Ganganagar district Rajasthan India Kerangka manusia, ornamen, oven tanah liat sepanjang 5 meter dan selebar 3 meter, sebuah guci berisi 8000 mutiara[8]
Bet Dwarka Devbhoomi Dwarka district Gujarat India Late Harappan seal, inscribed jar, the mould of coppersmith, a copper fishhook[9][10]
Bhagatrav Bharuch District Gujarat India
Bhirrana Fatehabad District Haryana India Graffiti seorang gadis penari pada tembikar, mirip dengan patung gadis penari yang ditemukan di Mohenjo-daro
Chanhudaro Nawabshah District Sindh Pakistan Bead making factory, penggunaan lipstick,[11] satu-satunya situs di Indus tanpa citadel
Daimabad Late Harappan Ahmadnagar District Maharashtra India A sculpture of a bronze chariot, 45 cm long and 16 cm wide, yoked to two oxen, driven by a man 16 cm high standing in it; and three other bronze sculptures.[12] Southernmost IVC site bronze sculpture
Desalpur in Nakhtrana Taluka, Kutch District Gujarat India Massive stone fortification, Harappan pottery, two script bearing seals, one of steatite and other of copper were also found; one script bearing terrecotta sealings was also found.[13]
Dholavira Kutch District Gujarat India Figure of chariot tied to a pair of bullocks and driven by a nude human, Water harvesting and number of reservoirs, use of rocks for constructions Waduk, Dholavira
Farmana Rohtak District Haryana India Situs pekuburan terbesar IVC di India, dengan 65 makam
Ganeriwala Punjab Pakistan Tepat di tengah-tengah jarak ke Harappa dan Mohenjodaro, it is near a dry bed of the former Ghaggar River. It is site of almost the same size of Mahenjodaro. It may have been the third major centre in the IVC as it is near to the copper rich mines in Rajasthan.
Gola Dhoro near Bagasara Amreli district Gujarat India Production of shell bangles, semi precious beads etc.
Harappa Sahiwal District Punjab Pakistan Granaries, coffin burial, lot of artefacts, important Indus Valley Civilization town, first town which is excavated and studied in detail Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines with polychromy.
Hisar mound inside Firoz Shah Palace Hisar District Haryana India Situs belum diekskavasi Fort of Firoz Shah Tughlaq at Hisar
Hulas Saharanpur District Uttar Pradesh India
Juni Kuran Kutch District Gujarat India fortified citadel, lower town, public gathering area[14]
Jognakhera Kurukshetra Haryana India Copper smelting furnaces with copper slag and pot shards[15]
Kaj Gir Somnath District Gujarat India Ceramic artifacts, including bowls. Ancient port.[16]
Kanjetar Gir Somnath District Gujarat India Single phase Harapppan site.[17]
Kalibangan Hanumangarh District Rajasthan India Baked/burnt bangles, fire altars, Shiva Lingam, small circular pits containing large urns and accompanied by pottery, bones of camel
Karanpura near Bhadra city Hanumangarh district Rajasthan India Skeleton of child, terracotta like pottery, bangles, seals similar to other Harappan sites [18] Wesern mound called citadel
Khirasara Kutch district Gujarat India Ware House, Industrial area, gold, copper, semi precious stone, shell objects and weight hoards
Kerala-no-dhoro or Padri Saurashtra Gujarat India Salt production centre, by evaporating sea water[1]
Kot Bala Lasbela District Balochistan Pakistan Earliest evidence of furnace, seaport
Kot Diji Khairpur District Sindh Pakistan
Kunal, Haryana Fatehabad District Haryana India Earliest Pre-Harappan site, Copper smelting.[1]
Kuntasi Rajkot District Gujarat India Small port
Lakhueen-jo-daro Sukkur District Sindh Pakistan
Larkana Larkana District Sindh Pakistan
Loteshwar Patan District Gujarat India Situs arkeologi kuno[1]
Lothal Ahmedabad District Gujarat India Bead making factory, dockyard, button seal, fire altars, painted jar, earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC) The drainage system at Lothal 2.JPG
Manda, Jammu Jammu District Jammu & Kashmir India Northern Most Harappan site in Himalayan foothills[19]
Malwan Surat District Gujarat India Southernmost Harappan site in India[20]
Mandi Muzaffarnagar district Uttar Pradesh India
Mehrgarh Kachi District Balochistan Pakistan Earliest agricultural community
Mitathal Bhiwani District Haryana India
Mohenjo-Daro Larkana District Sindh Pakistan Great Bath (the biggest bath ghat), Great granary, Bronze dancing girl, Bearded man, terracotta toys, Bull seal, Pashupati seal, three cylindrical seals of the Mesopotamian type, a piece of woven cloth Mohenjodaro Sindh.jpeg
Mundigak Kandahar Province Kandahar Afghanistan
Navinal Kutch district Gujarat India Otolit ikan[21]
Nausharo near Dadhar Kachi District Balochistan Pakistan
Ongar Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan
Pabumath Kutch District Gujarat India A large building complex, unicorn seal, shell bangles, beads, copper bangles, needles, antimony rods, steatite micro beads; pottery include large and medium size jars, beaker, dishes, dish-on-stand, perforated jars etc.; fine red pottery with black painted designs etc.[22]
Pir Shah Jurio Karachi Sindh Pakistan
Pirak Sibi Balochistan Pakistan
Rakhigarhi Hisar District Haryana India Roda terakota, mainan, figurines, tembikar. Large site, partially excavated.
Rangpur Ahmedabad District Gujarat India Pelabuhan kapal
Rehman Dheri Dera Ismail Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan
Rojdi Rajkot District Gujarat India
Rupar Rupnagar District Punjab India
Sanauli[23] Baghpat District Uttar Pradesh India Situs pekuburan dengan 125 makam
Sheri Khan Tarakai Bannu District Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan tembikar, lithic artifact
Shikarpur, Gujarat[24] Kutch District Gujarat India Detail kebiasaan makanan orang Harappa
Shortugai Takhar Province Afghanistan
Siswal Hisar (district) Haryana India
Sokhta Koh Makran Balochistan Pakistan Tembikar
Sothi near Baraut Bagpat district Uttar Pradesh India
Surkotada Kutch District Gujarat India Tulang-tulang seekor kuda (only site)
Sutkagan Dor Makran Balochistan Pakistan Bangles of clay, Westernmost known site of IVC[25]
Vejalka Botad district Gujarat India tembikar

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c d McIntosh 2008.
  2. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. hlm. 137. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  3. ^ Francfort: Fouilles de Shortughai, pl. 75, no. 7
  4. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. hlm. 222. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  5. ^ Agnihotri, V.K., ed. (1981). Indian History. Mumbai: Allied Publishers. hlm. A–82. ISBN 9788184245684. 
  6. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. hlm. 137, 157. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  7. ^ Archaeological Survey of India Publication:Indian Archaeology 1963-64 A Review [1]
  8. ^ "Baror near Ramsinghpur". Rajasthan patrika newspaper. 19 June 2006. 
  9. ^ Rao, S. R.; Gaur, A. S. (July 1992). "Excavations at Bet Dwarka" (PDF). Marine Archaeology. Marine Archaeological Centre, Goa. 3: 42–. Diakses tanggal 1 January 2015. 
  10. ^ Gaur, A. S. (25 February 2004). "A unique Late Bronze Age copper fish-hook from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, west coast of India: Evidence on the advance fishing technology in ancient India" (PDF). Current Science. IISc. 86 (4): 512–514. Diakses tanggal 1 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "Indus Valley Civilization". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 20 June 2012. 
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ "Explorations and excavations: Gujarat: 19. Excavation at Desalpur (Gunthli), District Kutch" (PDF). Indian Archaeology 1963-64, A Review. Indian Archaeology (1963–64): 10–12. 1967. Diakses tanggal 19 July 2012. 
  14. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263580655_Was_the_Rann_of_Kachchh_navigable_during_the_Harappan_times_Mid-Holocene_An_archaeological_perspective
  15. ^ Sabharwal, Vijay (2010-07-11). "Indus Valley site ravaged by floods". The Times Of India. 
  16. ^ Farooqui, Anjum; Gaur, A.S.; Prasad, Vandana (2013). "Climate, vegetation and ecology during Harappan period: excavations at Kanjetar and Kaj, mid-Saurashtra coast, Gujarat". Journal of Archaeological Science. Elsevier BV. 40 (6): 2631–2647. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2013.02.005. ISSN 0305-4403. 
  17. ^ Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Abhayan, G.S.; Joglekar, P.P. "Excavations at Kanjetar and Kaj on the Saurashtra Coast, Gujarat". AGRIS: International Information System for the Agricultural Science and Technology. Diakses tanggal 2017-05-28. 
  18. ^ "seals found at Karanpura". 
  19. ^ India Archaeology 1976-77, A Review. Archaeological Survey of India.Page 19.
  20. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A history of ancient and early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. hlm. 137. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  21. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315796119_Fish_Otoliths_from_Navinal_Kachchh_Gujarat_Identification_of_Taxa_and_Its_Implications
  22. ^ Mittra, Debala, ed. (1983). "Indian Archaeology 1980-81 A Review" (PDF). Indian Archaeology 1980-81 a Review. Calcutta: Government of India, Archaeological Survey of India: 14. 
  23. ^ Archaeological Survey of India
  24. ^ Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Maharaja Sayyajirao University, Baroda. Excavations at Shikarpur, Gujarat 2008-2009."Archived copy" (PDF). Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 21 September 2012. Diakses tanggal 2012-06-25. 
  25. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (2003). The Indus Civilization : A Contemporary perspective (edisi ke-[3rd printing].). New Delhi: Vistaar Publications. hlm. 79–80. ISBN 8178292912. 

Pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]