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Presiden Konfederasi (bahasa Italia: Presidente della Confederazione, bahasa Perancis: Président de la Confédération, bahasa Jerman: Bundespräsident) terbentuk dari anggota Dewan Federal Swiss, tujuh anggota Swiss pemerintahan eksekutif. Pemilihan di Parlemen Federal (Federal Assembly) untuk satu tahun sebagai Presiden Konfederasi dalam keputusan rapat Dewan Federal Council dan representasi khusus. Presiden tidak memiliki kekuasaan penuh sebagai Kanselor dan secara berkala mengepalai sebuah departemen. Secara tradisional ini merupakan sisitem peralihan secara terus-menerus dari posisi sebagai Wakil Presiden kemudian menjadi presiden.
Presiden Konfederasi Swiss tidak sama dengan Presiden di Austria atau Jerman yang tampil sebagai Kepala Negara (Head of State). Konstitusi Federal Swiss (The Swiss Federal Constitution) sebagai Kepala Negara dan bukan Pimpinan Pemerintahan. Secara administrasi berada di bawah Dewan Federal. Jika berhalangan, pimpinan Dewan Federal menggantikannya.
In addition to the control of their own Department, the President carries out some of the representative duties of a Head of State. At first this was only the case inside Switzerland: The President holds speeches on the New Year and the Swiss National Holiday (1st August). More recently, added foreign visits means that the President travels abroad often as well.
However, because the Swiss have no Head of State, the country also carries out no state visits. If the President travels abroad, he does so only as an ordinary Minister of a government Department.
Visiting heads of state are received by the seven members of the Federal Council together, rather than the President of the Confederation.
The President is elected by the Federal Assembly from the Federal Council in each case for one year.
In the 19th century, the election of the federal president was an award for especially esteemed Federal Council (Bundesrat) members. However, a few influential members of the government were regularly passed over. One such example was St. Galler Wilhelm Matthias Naeff, who belonged to the government for twenty-seven years, but was federal president only once in 1853.
Since the twentieth century, the election has usually not been disputed. There is an unwritten rule that the member of the Federal Council who has not been Federal President the longest becomes president. Therefore every Federal Council member gets a turn at least once every seven years. The only question in the elections that provides some tension is the question of how many votes the person who is to be elected president receives. This is seen as a test of their popularity. In the 1970s and 1980s, 200 votes (of 246 possible) was seen as an excellent result. However, in the current era of growing party-political conflicts, 180 votes are already considered a respectable outcome.
Until 1920 it was usually customary for the serving federal president to also take over the Foreign Ministry. Therefore every year there was a moving around of posts, as the retiring president moved back to his old department and the new president moved into the foreign ministry. Likewise, it was traditional for the federal president, even as foreign minister, not to leave Switzerland during his year in office.
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Pranala luar [sunting]
- Presidents of the Swiss Confederation 2005 -- situs resmi.