Pertempuran Tours

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Pertempuran Tours
Steuben - Bataille de Poitiers.png
Lukisan Charles de Steuben Bataille de Poitiers en Octobre 732 menggambarkan Charles Martel (berkuda) menghadapi Abdurrahman Al-Ghafiqi (kanan) dalam Pertempuran Tours.
Tanggal 10 Oktober 732
Lokasi dekat Tours, Perancis
Hasil Kemenangan Frank
Pihak yang terlibat
Bangsa Frank Karolingia Kekhalifahan Umayyah
Komandan
Charles Martel Abdurrahman Al-Ghafiqi
Kekuatan
mungkin 20.000-30.000 tidak diketahui, namun sumber awal menyebutkan 80.000[1] mention a figure of 80,000.
Korban
Tidak diketahui; 1,500 dilaporkan Mungkin 10,000, termasuk Abdurrahman Al-Ghafiqi[2]

Pertempuran Tours (10 Oktober 732)[3] atau Pertempuran Poitiers atau معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’) Pertempuran Bangsal Syuhada[4] terjadi di dekat Tours, sekitar perbatasan kekuasaan Frank dan Aquitaine merdeka. Dalam pertempuran ini, Bangsa Frank dan Burgundi[5][6] pimpinan Charles Martel, penguasa Austrasia melawan tentara Umayyah pimpinan Abdurrahman Al-Ghafiqi, gubernur Al-Andalus. Pertempuran ini berakhir dengan kemenangan bangsa Frank, terbunuhnya Al-Ghafiqi, serta perluasan kekuasaan Martel ke selatan. Rincian dari pertempuran ini, termasuk lokasi persis dan jumlah tentara yang bertarung dalam pertempuran ini tidak dapat diketahui, namun menurut legenda pasukan Frank bertempur tanpa menggunakan kavaleri.

Kemenangan Frank dalam pertempuran ini merupakan awal berdirinya Kekaisaran Karolingian dan dominasi bangsa Frank atas Eropa, dan menurut sebagian sejarawan, kemenangan ini telah menyelamatkan keberadaan Agama Kristen dari upaya penaklukan umat Islam di Eropa. "Pendirian kekuasaan Frank di Eropa barat menentukan takdir benua tersebut, dan Pertempuran Tours memastikan kekuasaan tersebut."[7]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The earliest Muslim source for this campaign is the Futūh Miṣr of Ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥakam (c. 803-71) — see Watson, 1993 and Torrey, 1922.
  2. ^ Hanson, 2001, p. 141.
  3. ^ Oman, 1960, p. 167.
  4. ^ Henry Coppée writes, "The same name (see ante) was given to the battle of Toulouse and is applied to many other fields on which the Moslemah were defeated: they were always martyrs for the faith" (Coppée, 1881/2002, p. 13.)
  5. ^ Bachrach, 2001, p. 276.
  6. ^ Fouracre, 2002, p. 87 citing the Vita Eucherii, ed. W. Levison, Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum VII, pp. 46–53, ch. 8, pp. 49–50; Gesta Episcoporum Autissiodorensium, extracts ed. G. Waitz, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores XIII, pp. 394–400, ch. 27, p. 394.
  7. ^ Davis, 1999, p. 106.

Referensi dan bahan bacaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Arabs, Franks, and the Battle of Tours, 732: Three Accounts from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook
  • Bachrach, Bernard S (2001). Early Carolingian Warfare: Prelude to Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3533-9
  • Barbero, Alessandro (2004). Charlemagne: Father of a Continent. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23943-1
  • Bede, Giles, John Allen, Stevens, John, Gurvey, Anna and Petrie, Henry (1847). The Venerable Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England. H. G. Bohn.
  • Bennett, Bradsbury, Devries, Dickie and Jestice, Fighting Techniques of the Medieval World
  • Coppée, Henry (1881/2002). History of the Conquest of Spain by the Arab Moors, With a Sketch of the Civilization Which They Achieved, and Imparted to Europe. Vol II. Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-931956-94-4
  • Cowley, Robert and Parker, Geoffrey (Eds.). (2001). The Reader's Companion to Military History. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0-618-12742-9
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  • Eggenberger, David (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles: Accounts of Over 1,560 Battles from 1479 B.C. to the Present. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24913-1
  • Fouracre, Paul (2000). The Age of Charles Martel. Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-06476-7
  • Gibbon, Edward The Battle of Tours, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Grant, Michael History of Rome
  • Grunebaum, Gustave von (2005). Classical Islam: A History, 600 A.D. to 1258 A.D. Aldine Transaction. ISBN 0-202-30767-0
  • Hanson, Victor Davis. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power. Anchor Books, 2001. Published in the UK as Why the West has Won. Faber and Faber, 2001. ISBN 0-571-21640-4
  • Hitti, Philip Khuri (2002). History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 1-931956-61-8
  • Hooker, Richard "Civil War and the Umayyads"
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  • Martin, Robert W. "The Battle of Tours is still felt today", from about.com
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  • Poke, The Battle of Tours, from the book Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World From Marathon to Waterloo by Sir Edward Creasy, MA
  • Reagan, Geoffrey, The Guinness Book of Decisive Battles, Canopy Books, NY (1992) ISBN 1-55859-431-0
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  • Roberts, J.M. (2003) The New History of the World Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521927-9
  • Santosuosso, Anthony (2004). Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-9153-9
  • Schoenfeld, Edward J. (2001). Battle of Poitiers. In Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker (Eds.). (2001). The Reader's Companion to Military History (p. 366). Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0-618-12742-9
  • Torrey, Charles Cutler (1922). The History of the Conquest of Egypt, North Africa and Spain: Known as the Futūh Miṣr of Ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥakam. Yale University Press.
  • The Battle of Tours 732, from the "Jewish Virtual Library" website: A division of the American-Israeli Cooperative.
  • Tours, Poiters, from "Leaders and Battles Database" online.
  • Watson, William E., "The Battle of Tours-Poitiers Revisited", Providence: Studies in Western Civilization, 2 (1993)
  • Wolf, Kenneth Baxter (2000). Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-85323-554-6