Pengeboman strategis

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Tokyo setelah pengeboman besar-besaran pada malam tanggal 9 Oktober 1945, salah satu serangan udara yang paling merusak dalam sejarah militer.

Pengeboman strategis adalah strategi militer dalam perang total yang bertujuan untuk mengalahkan musuh dengan cara melumpuhkan perekonomian dan mematahkan keinginan publik untuk berperang, bukannya dengan melumpuhkan angkatan perang mereka. Serangan ini adalah serangan sistematis yang terorganisir dari udara dengan menggunakan bom strategis, rudal jarak panjang dan menengah, atau senjata nuklir untuk menyerang target-target yang dianggap penting bagi kepentingan perang musuh.

Salah satu tujuan perang adalah untuk melumpuhkan musuh, sehingga mereka lebih memilih untuk berdamai atau menyerah ketimbang melanjutkan peperangan. Pengeboman strategis dimanfaatkan untuk mewujudkan kondisi ini. Istilah lainnya yang digunakan adalah "teror bom", yang mulai populer menjelang akhir Perang Dunia II di saat banyaknya kampanye pengeboman strategis yang dilakukan oleh pihak yang berperang, misalnya pengeboman Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, pengeboman Berlin, pengeboman London, dan sebagainya.[1]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Longmate 1983, hlm. 122,123 quoting the Singleton Report

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Algeo, John (1993). Fifty years among the new words: a dictionary of neologisms, 1941–1991 (ed. 2, reprint). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44971-5. 
  • Axinn, Sidney (2008). A Moral Military. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-59213-958-3. 
  • Brower, Charles F. (1998). World War II in Europe: the final year: Roosevelt Study Center. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-21133-2. 
  • Copp, Terry (September/October 1996). "The Bomber Command Offensive". originally published in the Legion Magazine. 
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. (1978a). Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare 9. London: Phoebus. hlm. 969. 
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. (1978b). Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare 16. London: Phoebus. hlm. 1736, 1697, 1700. 
  • Fritz, Stephen G. (2004). Endkampf: soldiers, civilians, and the death of the Third Reich (ed. illustrated). University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2325-9. 
  • Hayward, Joel (2009). Air Power, Insurgency and the "War on Terror". Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies. ISBN 978-0-9552189-6-5. 
  • Hessel, Peter (2005). The Mystery of Frankenberg's Canadian Airman (ed. illustrated). James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 1-55028-884-9. 
  • Kochavi, Arieh J. (2005). Confronting captivity: Britain and the United States and their POWs in Nazi Germany (ed. illustrated). UNC Press Books. ISBN 0-8078-2940-4. 
  • Lewis, Peter M. H. (1994). "B-29 Superfortress". In Grolier Incorporated. Academic American Encyclopedia 10. Grolier Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-7172-2053-3. 
  • Longmate, Norman (1983). The Bombers: The RAF offensive against Germany 1939–1945. Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-151580-7. 
  • Lovell, George (2000). Consultancy, Ministry & Mission. Continuum International Publishing Group. hlm. 10. ISBN 978-0-86012-312-5. 
  • Myrdal, Alva (1977). The game of disarmament: how the United States and Russia run the arms race. Manchester University Press ND. ISBN 0-7190-0693-7. 
  • Omissi, David (1990). Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2960-0. 
  • Overy, R. J. (2005). The air war, 1939–1945. Brassey's. ISBN 978-1-57488-716-7. 
  • Taylor, Frederick (2005). Dresden: Tuesday 13 February 1945. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-7084-1. 

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Biddle, Tami Davis. Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914–1945 (Princeton Studies in International History and Politics) (2004)
  • Boog, Horst, ed. The Conduct of the Air War in the Second World War (1992)
  • Boog, Horst, ed. Germany and the Second World War: Volume VII: The Strategic Air War in Europe and the War in the West and East Asia, 1943–1944/5 (Oxford UP, 2006), 928pp official German history vol 7 excerpt and text search; online edition
  • Buckley, John (1999). Air Power in the Age of Total War. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33557-4. 
  • Clodfelter, Mark. "Aiming to Break Will: America's World War II Bombing of German Morale and its Ramifications", Journal of Strategic Studies, June 2010, Vol. 33 Issue 3, pp 401–435
  • Clodfelter, Mark. Beneficial Bombing: The Progressive Foundations of American Air Power, 1917–1945 (University of Nebraska Press; 2010) 347 pages
  • Craven, Wesley Frank and James Lea Cate. The Army Air Forces in World War II (6 vol 1958), official USAF history
  • Davis, Richard G. "Bombing Strategy Shifts, 1944-45", Air Power History 39 (1989) 33-45
  • Franklin, Noble, and Charles Webster. The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany, 1939–1945 (4 volumes, 1961), official RAF history
  • Futrell, Robert Frank. Ideas, concepts, doctrine: A history of basic thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907–1964 (2 vol 1974)
  • Griffith, Charles. The quest: Haywood Hansell and American strategic bombing in World War II (1999) online edition
  • Hansell, Jr., Haywood S. Air Plan That Defeated Hitler (1980) online version
  • Kennett, Lee B. A History of Strategic Bombing (1982)
  • Koch, H. W. "The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany: the Early Phase, May–September 1940." The Historical Journal, 34 (March 1991) pp 117–41. online at JSTOR
  • Levine, Alan J. The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945 (1992) online edition
  • MacIsaac, David. Strategic Bombing in World War Two (1976)
  • Messenger, Charles. "Bomber" Harris and the Strategic Bombing Offensive, 1939–1945 (1984), defends Harris
  • Overy. Richard. "The Means to Victory: Bombs and Bombing" in Overy, Why the Allies Won (1995), pp 101–33
  • Sherry, Michael. The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (1987), important study 1930s-1960s
  • Smith, Malcolm. "The Allied Air Offensive", Journal of Strategic Studies 13 (Mar 1990) 67-83
  • Spaight. James M. "Bombing Vindicated" G. Bles, 1944. ASIN: B0007IVW7K (Spaight was Principal Assistant Secretary of the Air Ministry) (U.K)
  • Verrier, Anthony. The Bomber Offensive (1968), British
  • Webster, Charles and Noble Frankland, The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany, 1939–1945 (HMSO, 1961), 4 vol. Important official British history
  • Werrell, Kenneth P. "The Strategic Bombing of Germany in World War II: Costs and Accomplishments", Journal of American History 73 (1986) 702-713; good place to start. in JSTOR
  • Werrell, Kenneth P. Death From the Heavens: A History of Strategic Bombing (2009)