Kibele

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Patung marmer Kibele dari abad ke-1 SM Formia, Latium.

Kibele (play /ˈkɪbəl/ atau [ˈsɪb.əl.i]; bahasa Frigia: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Bunda Kubeleyan", kemungkinan "Bunda Gunung"; bahasa Yunani: Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis), adalah Ibu Bumi dalam kepercayaan Frigia. Seperti juga Gaia dari Yunani dan Rea dari Minoa, Kibele merupakan perwujuan bumi yang subur. Kibele juga adalah dewi gua dan gunung, dinding dan benteng, alam, hewan liar (khsusunya singa dan lebah). Kibele dari Frigia seringkali diidentikkan dengan dewi Hebat dari bangsa Het-Huria, meskipun dewa ini mungkin merupakan asal mula dewa Anatolia, Kubaba.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Burkert, Walter, 1982. Greek Religion (Cambridge:Harvard University Press), especially section III.3.4
  • Motz, Lotte (1997). The Faces of the Goddess. New York: Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195089677. 
  • Mark Munn, "Kybele as Kubaba in a Lydo-Phrygian Context": Emory University cross-cultural conference "Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Central Anatolia", 2004 (Abstracts)
  • Roller, Lynn Emrich (1999). In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0520210247. 
  • Vassileva, Maya (2001). "Further considerations on the cult of Kybele". Anatolian Studies (British Institute at Ankara). 51, 2001: 51. doi:10.2307/3643027. JSTOR 3643027. 
  • Virgil. The Aeneid trans from Latin by West, David (Penguin Putnam Inc. 2003) p. 189-190 ISBN 0-14-044932-9
  • Emmanuel Laroche, "Koubaba, déesse anatolienne, et le problème des origines de Cybèle", Eléments orientaux dans la religion grecque ancienne, Paris 1960, p. 113-128.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brixhe, Claude "Le Nom de Cybele", Die Sprache, 25 (1979), 40-45
  • George E. Bean. Aegean Turkey: An archaeological guide ISBN 978-0-510-03200-5, 1967. Ernest Benn, London. 
  • Hyde, Walter Woodburn Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire (U. of Pennsylvania Press, 1946)
  • Knauer, Elfried R. (2006). "The Queen Mother of the West: A Study of the Influence of Western Prototypes on the Iconography of the Taoist Deity." In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. Pp. 62–115. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN 0-8248-2884-4 (An article showing the probable derivation of the Daoist goddess, Xi Wangmu, from Kybele/Cybele)
  • Lane, Eugene. Ed. Cybele, Attis, and Related Cults: Essays in Memory of M.J. Vermaseren (E.J. Brill, 1996)
  • Showerman, Grant The Great Mother of the Gods (Argonaut, 1969)
  • Vermaseren, Maarten Jozef. Cybele and Attis: The Myth and the Cult trans. from Dutch by A. M. H. Lemmers (Thames and Hudson, 1977)
  • Virgil. The Aeneid trans from Latin by West, David (Penguin Putnam Inc. 2003)