Edward Hallett Carr

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Edward Hallett Carr
Lahir 28 Juni 1892
London, Britania Raya
Meninggal 3 November 1982 (umur 90)
London, Britania Raya
Kebangsaan Britania Raya
Almamater Trinity College, Cambridge
Pekerjaan Sejarawan, duta besar, teoriwan hubungan internasional, dan jurnalis
Dikenal karena Studi tentang sejarah Soviet; menciptakan didaktik realis-utopia dalam teori hubungan internasional, dan menggariskan prinsip historiografi radikal dalam buku What Is History?
Pasangan Anne Ward Howe (1) Joyce Marion Stock Forde (hubungan hukum umum) (2) Betty Behrens (3)
Anak 1 son

Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr CBE (28 Juni 1892 – 3 November 1982) adalah seorang sejarawan, jurnalis, dan teoriwan hubungan internasional asal Britania Raya. Ia juga seorang liberal, kemudian Marxis, serta penentang empirisisme dalam historiografi.

Carr dikenal karena menulis sejarah Uni Soviet dalam 14 volume, yang ia isi dengan kesaksian sejarah Soviet mulai tahun 1917 sampai 1929, dan karena tulisan-tulisannya mengenai hubungan internasional, serta buku What Is History?, tempat ia menetapkan prinsip-prinsip historiografis yang menolah metode dan praktik sejarah tradisional.

Lulusan Merchant Taylors' School, London, dan Trinity College, Cambridge, Carr memulai kariernya sebagai duta besar tahun 1916. Karena semakiin tertarik dengan studi hubungan internasional dan Uni Soviet, ia mengundurkan diri dari Kementerian Luar Negeri tahun 1936 untuk memulai karier akademiknya. Mulai 1941 hingga 1946, Carr bekerja sebagai asisten editor di The Times, tempat ia dikenal karena editorialnya yang mengusung sistem sosialis dan aliansi Inggris-Soviet sebagai dasar ketertiban pascaperang. Setelah itu, Carr mengerjakan karya sejarah Soviet sebanyak 14 volume berjudul A History of Soviet Russia, sebuah proyek yang masih ia kerjakan sampai meninggal dunia tahun 1982. Pada tahun 1961, ia menyampaikan kuliah G. M. Trevelyan di University of Cambridge yang menjadi dasar bukunya, What is History? Semakin beraliran kiri sepanjang kariernya, Carr melihat perannya sebagai seorang teoriwan yang akan menetapkan tata internasional baru.

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  • "Turgenev and Dostoyevsky" pp. 156–163 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 8, Issue # 22 June 1929.
  • "Was Dostoyevsky an Epileptic?" pp. 424–431 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 9, Issue # 26, December 1930.
  • "Review: The Brother of Dostoyevsky" review of Vospominaniya A. M. Dostoevskogo pp. 753–754 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 9, Issue # 27, March 1931.
  • Dostoevsky (1821–1881): a New Biography, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1931.
  • The Romantic Exiles: a Nineteenth Century Portrait Gallery, London: Victor Gollancz, 1933 and was also published in paperback by Penguin in 1949 and again in 1968.
  • Karl Marx: a Study in Fanaticism, London: Dent, 1934.
  • "The League of Peace and Freedom: An Episode in the Quest for Collective Security" pp. 837–844 from International Affairs, Volume 14, Issue # 6, November–December 1935.
  • Review of International Socialism and the World War by Merle Fainsod pages 131-132 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 1, January - February 1936.
  • Review of The Way of a Transgressor by Negley Farson pages 441-442 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 3, May - June 1936.
  • Review of Cheerful Giver The Life of Harold Williams by Ariadna Tyrkova-Williams pages 442-443 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue# 3, May - June 1936.
  • Review of Inside Europe by John Gunther page 458 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue# 3, May - June 1936.
  • Review of Diplomacy and Peace by R. B. Mowat pages 576-577 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue 4, July - August 1936.
  • Review of Balkan Holiday by David Footman page 618 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 4, July - August 1936.
  • Review of Marxism and the National and Colonial Question by Joseph Stalin page 623 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 4, July - August 1936.
  • Review of Selected Works Volume I-The Prerequisites of the First Russian Revolution (1894-99) by V. I. Lenin pages 624-625 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 4, July - August 1936.
  • Review of Nicholas II: Prisoner of the People by Essad Bey page 625 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 4, July - August 1936.
  • Review of Britain and the Soviets pp. 625–626 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 4, July–August 1936.
  • Review of Problems of Soviet Literature by Andrei Zhdanov page 626 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 4, July–August 1936.
  • Review of Istoriya Grazhdanskoi Voiny S.S.S.R pp. 780–781 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 5, September -October 1936.
  • "Public Opinion As a Safeguard of Peace" pp. 846–862 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 6, November–December 1936.
  • Review of Friedrich Engels: A Biography by Gustav Mayer pages 907-908 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 6,November – December 1936.
  • Review of Dmitroff's Letters from Prison p. 909 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 6, November–December 1936.
  • Review of Letters from Prison by Ernst Toller page 909 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 6, November - December 1936.
  • Review of The Catholic Tradition of the Law of Nations by John Eppstein page 910 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 6, November - December 1936.
  • Review of Der Proletarische Sozialismus ("Marxismus"): Darstellung und Kritik by Werner Sombart page 914 from International Affairs, Volume 15, Issue # 6, November – December 1936.
  • Review of Moscow Admits a Critic by Sir Bernard Pares page 958 from International Affairs, Volume 15,Issue # 6, November – December 1936.
  • "Bakunin's Escape from Siberia" pp. 377–388 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 15, Issue # 44, January 1937.
  • Review of The Coming World War by T. H. Wintringham pages 128-129 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 1, January – February 1937.
  • Review of Farewell to Rousseau: A Critique of Liberal Democracy by Claud Sutton page 132 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 1, January - February 1937.
  • Review of Weltgeschichte der Gegenwart in Dokumenten, 1934-35 Teil I by Michael Freund pages 132-133 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 1, January – February 1937.
  • Review of Hitler over Russia? by Ernst Henri page 158 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 1, January - February 1937.
  • Review of Dawn over Samarkand: The Rebirth of Central Asia by Joseph Kunitz page 161 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 1, January - February 1937.
  • Review of Défense du Terrorisme by Leon Trotsky page 163 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 1, January - February 1937.
  • Michael Bakunin, London: Macmillan, 1937.
  • Review of Which Way to Peace? by Bertrand Russell pages 283-284 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 2, Mach - April 1937.
  • Review of Constitution of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics pp. 309–310 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 2, March–April 1937.
  • Review of The Case of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Centre: Report of Court Proceedings of the Zinoviev Trial by D. N. Pritt page 311 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 2, March - April 1937.
  • Review of The Future of Bolshevism by Waldemar Gurian page 481 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 3, May - June 1937.
  • Review of Big Horse's Flight: The Trail of War in Central Asia by Sven Hedin pages 482-483 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 3, May - June 1937.
  • Review of Geneva Scene by Norman Hillson pages 618-619 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 4, July 1937.
  • Review of Der Krieg um Genf by Oscar Bam page 621 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 4, July 1937.
  • Review of Selected Works Volume VII: After the Seizure of Power 1917-1918 by V. I. Lenin page 641 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 4, July 1937.
  • Review of Intervention, Civil War and Communism in Russia, April–December 1918: Documents and Materials by James Bunyan page 642 from International Affairs, Volume 16, Issue # 4, July 1937.
  • International Relations Since the Peace Treaties, London, Macmillan, 1937.
  • Review of Italy against the World by George Martelli pages 113-115 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 1, January–February 1938.
  • Review of Dusk of Europe by Wythe Williams pages 121-122 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 1, January – February 1938.
  • Review of A History of Russia by Bernard Pares pages 122-123 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 1, January – February 1938.
  • Review of Soviet Justice and the Trial of Radek and Others by Dudley Collard page 124 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 1, January – February 1938.
  • Review of For Peace and Friendship: Being a Verbatim Report of the Second National Congress of Peace and Friendship with the U.S.S.R p. 125 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 1, January–February 1938.
  • Review of History of Anarchism in Russia by E. Yaroslavsky page 454 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 3, May - June 1938.
  • Review of Soviet Tempo by Violet Conolly pages 289-290 from International Affairs, Volume 17,Issue # 2, March - April 1938.
  • Review of Moscow 1937 by Lion Feuchtwanger pages 456-457 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 3, May - June 1938.
  • Review of International Studies in Modern Education by S. H. Bailey pages 541-543 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 4, July - August 1938.
  • Review of The Origins of the Foreign Policy of Woodrow Wilson by Harley Notter pages 594-595 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 4, July - August 1938.
  • Review of Unto Cæsar by F. A. Voigt pages 699-700 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 5, September–October 1938.
  • Review of Geneva and the Drift to War: Lectures Delivered at the Geneva Institute of International Relations, August 1937 pp. 701–702 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 5, September–October 1938.
  • Review of Foreign Affairs, 1919 to 1937 by E. L. Hasluck page 703 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 5, September–October 1938.
  • Review of G.P.U. Justice by Maurice Edelman page 739 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 5, September- October 1938.
  • Review of The Crumbling of Empire by M. J. Bonn pages 828-829 from International Affairs, Volume 17, Issue # 6, November - December 1938.
  • The Twenty Years Crisis, 1919–1939: an Introduction to the Study of International Relations, London: Macmillan, 1939, revised edition, 1946.
  • Review of The History of The Times Volume II: The Tradition Established, 1841–1884 pp. 404–405 from International Affairs, Volume 18, Issue # 3, May–June 1939.
  • Review of The Communist International by Franz Borkenau pp. 444–445 from International Affairs, Volume 18, Issue # 3, May–June 1939.
  • Review of Germany's Next Aims by Oswald Dutch pages 528-529 from International Affairs, Volume 18, Issue # 4, July - August 1939.
  • Britain : A Study Of Foreign Policy From The Versailles Treaty To The Outbreak Of War, London ; New York : Longmans, Green and Co., 1939.
  • Review of Prelude to Victory by E. L. Spears pages 39–40 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 1, June 1940.
  • Review of Unfinished Victory by Sir Arthur Bryant page 40 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 1, June 1940.
  • Review of British Foreign Policy since Versailles, 1919-39 by W. N. Medlicott page 50 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 1, June 1940.
  • Review of Down River: A Danubian Study by John Lehmann pages 53–54 from 'International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 1, June 1940.
  • Review of Stalin: Czar of All the Russias by Eugene Lyons pages 59–60 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 1, June 1940.
  • Review of The War Crisis in Berlin, July–August 1914 by Horace Rumbold pages 106-107 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 2, October 1940.
  • Review of The Development of Modern France (1870–1939) by D. W. Brogan page 128 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 2, October 1940.
  • Review of Living Space: The Story of South-Eastern Europe by Stoyan Pribichevich page 130 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 2, October 1940.
  • Review of Stalin's Russia and the Crisis in Socialism by Max Eastman page 136 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 2, October 1940.
  • Review of Sea Power pp. 209–211 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 3–4, December 1940 – March 1941.
  • Review of Britain and France between Two Wars Conflicting Strategies of Peace since Versailles by Arnold Wolfers page 407 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 6/7, December 1941 - March 1942.
  • Reviews of New Horizons by J. T. Murphy and Russia on the March by J. T. Murphy pages 415-416 from International Affairs Review Supplement, Volume 19, Issue # 6/7, December 1941 - March 1942.
  • Conditions of Peace, London: Macmillan, 1942.
  • Review of A Survey of Russian History by B.H. Summer pp. 294–295 from International Affairs, Volume 20, Issue # 2, April 1944.
  • Review of The Future of Economic Society A Study in Group Organization by Roy Glenday pp. 563–564 from International Affairs, Volume 20, Issue # 4, October 1944.
  • Nationalism and After, London: Macmillan, 1945.
  • Review of Eastern Europe between the Wars 1918–1941 by Hugh Seton-Watson from International Affairs, Volume 22,Issue # 1, January 1946.
  • Review of Patterns of Peacemaking by David Thomson, Ernst Mayer and Arthur Briggs p. 277 from International Affairs, Volume 22, Issue # 2 March 1946.
  • Review of Building Lenin's Russia by Simon Liberman p. 303 from International Affairs, Volume 22, Issue # 2, March 1946.
  • The Soviet Impact on the Western World, 1946.
  • Review of The Idea of Nationalism A Study in Its Origins and Background by Hans Kohn pp. 555–556 from International Affairs, Volume 22, Issue # 4, October 1946.
  • "Two Currents in World Labor" pp. 72–81 from Foreign Affairs, Volume 25, Issue # 1 October 1946.
  • "From Munich to Moscow I" pp. 3–17 from Soviet Studies, Volume 1, Issue # 1, June, 1949.
  • "From Munich to Moscow II" pp. 93–105 from Soviet Studies, Volume 1, Issue # 2, October 1949.
  • A History of Soviet Russia, Collection of 14 volumes, London: Macmillan, 1950–1978. The first three titles being The Bolshevik Revolution (3 volumes), The Interregnum (1 volume), Socialism In One Country (5 volumes) and The Foundations of A Planned Economy (5 volumes).
  • Review: The Road to Rapallo Review of Sovetskaya Rossiya i Kapitalisticheskie Gosudarstva v Gody Perekhoda ot Voiny k Miru (1921–1922 gg.) (Soviet Russia and the Capitalist States in the Years of Transition from War to Peace: 1921–22) by N. Rubinstein pp. 231–234 from Soviet Studies, Volume 1, Issue # 3, January 1950. '
  • "Review: Russian and German Communism" Review of Stalin and German Communism by Ruth Fischer pp. 347–353 from Soviet Studies, Volume 1, Issue # 4, April 1950.
  • The New Society, London: Macmillan, 1951.
  • Review of Bakounine et le Panslavisme Revolutionnaire by Benoit-P. Hepner pp. 227–229 from American Slavic and East European Review, Volume 10, Issue # 3, October 1951.
  • Review of Lénine et la IIIme Internationale by Branko Lazitch pp. 268–270 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 30, Issue # 74, December 1951.
  • "Review: The Diplomatic Dictionary" review of Diplomatichesky Slovar pp. 316–318 from Soviet Studies, Volume 3, Issue # 3, January 1952.
  • "Radek's 'Political Salon' in Berlin 1919" pp. 411–430 from Soviet Studies, Volume 3, Issue # 4, April 1952.
  • German-Soviet Relations Between the Two World Wars, 1919–1939, London, Geoffrey Cumberlege 1952.
  • "Stalin" pp. 1–7 from Soviet Studies, Volume 5, Issue # 1, July 1953.
  • Review of Zwischen Berlin und Moskau Zur Geschichte der deutsch-sowjetischen Beziehungen by Albert Norden p. 513 from International Affairs, Volume 31, Issue # 4, October 1955.
  • Review of An Outline of Modern Russian Historiography by A. G. Mazour p. 529 from International Affairs, Volume 31, Issue # 4, October, 1955.
  • Review of Labour Policy in the U.S.S.R., 1917–1928 by Margaret Dewar pp. 182–183 from The Economic History Review, Volume 9, Issue # 1, 1956.
  • "'Russia and Europe' As A Theme of Russian History" pp. 357–393 from Essays Presented to Sir Lewis Namier ed. Richard Pares and A.J.P. Taylor, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1956, 1971, ISBN 0-8369-2010-4.
  • "Some Notes on Soviet Bashkiria" pp. 217–235 from Soviet Studies, Volume 8, Issue # 3 January 1957.
  • "The Origin and Status of the Cheka" pp. 1–11 from Soviet Studies, Volume 10, Issue # 1, July 1958.
  • "Pilnyak and the Death of Frunze" pp. 162–164 from Soviet Studies, Volume 10, Issue # 2 October 1958.
  • "Correspondence" pp. 319–320 from Soviet Studies, Volume 10, Issue # 3, January 1959.
  • What is History?, 1961, revised edition ed. R.W. Davies, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986.
  • Review of Conversations with Stalin by Milovan Đilas pp. 326–327 from Soviet Studies, Volume 14, Issue # 3, January 1963.
  • "Editorial Changes in Stalin's Speech of 9 July 1928" pp. 339–340 from Soviet Studies, Volume 16, Issue # 3, January 1965.
  • 1917 Before and After, London: Macmillan, 1969; American edition: The October Revolution Before and After, New York: Knopf, 1969.
  • "Introduction" pages 2–6 to Heretics and Renegades and Other Essays by Isaac Deutscher, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1969.
  • Review of Lenin's Last Struggle by Moshe Lewin page 442 from The English Historical Review, Volume 85, Issue # 335, April 1970.
  • Review of The Trial of Bukharin by G. Katkov pages 876-877 from The English Historical Review, Volume 85, Issue # 337, October 1970.
  • Review of The Making of the Soviet State Apparatus by O. A. Narkiewicz page 224 from The English Historical Review, Volume 88, Issue # 346, January 1973.
  • Review of Socialism in India by B. R. Nanda pp. 118–119 from Modern Asian Studies, Volume 7, Issue # 1, January 1973.
  • Review of Lénine by Gerard Walter page 937 from The English Historical Review, Volume 88, Issue # 349, October 1973.
  • Review of In the Name of the People: Prophets and Conspirators in Prerevolutionary Russia by Adam B. Ulam pages 126-127 from Slavic Review, Volume 37, Issue # 1, March 1978.
  • "The Zinoviev Letter" pp. 209–210 from The Historical Journal, Volume 22, Issue # 1, March 1979.
  • The Russian Revolution: From Lenin to Stalin (1917–1929), London: Macmillan, 1979.
  • From Napoleon to Stalin and Other Essays, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.
  • Review of Turgenev: His Life and Times by Leonard Schapiro pp. 432–434 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 58, Issue # 3, July 1980.
  • Review of Die auswärtige Kulturpolitik der Sowjetunion in ihren Auswirkungen auf Deutschland, 1921–1929 by Edgar Lersch p. 461 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 58, Issue # 3, July 1980.
  • Review of Bakounine: combats et débats p. 317 from The Slavonic and East European Review, Volume 59, Issue # 2, April 1981.
  • The Twilight of the Comintern, 1930–1935, London: Macmillan, 1982.
  • The Comintern and the Spanish Civil War, 1984.

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