Bafomet

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Gambar Kambing Duduk Bersila dari abad ke-19, diciptakan oleh Éliphas Lévi. Lengannya memiliki tulisan kata dalam Bahasa Latin SOLVE (melarutkan) dan COAGULA (mengeraskan).

Bafomet (pengucapan bahasa Inggris: [ˈbæfɵmɛt], dari Bahasa Latin Abad Pertengahan Baphometh, baffometi, Bafometz) adalah suatu sosok imajinasi dewa pagan (yaitu sebuah produk cerita rakyat Kristen mengenai kaum pagan) yang dihidupkan kembali pada abad ke-19 sebagai figur okultisme dan setanisme. Nama ini pertama kali muncul di dalam Bahasa Latin dan Bahasa Provençal (sebuah dialek dari Perancis Selatan) abad ke-11 dan 12 sebagai bentuk manipulasi dari kata "Mahomet", yaitu kata Bahasa Latin untuk "Muhammad",[1] namun kemudian muncul sebagai sebuah kata yang merujuk pada dewa pafan dalam dokumen-dokumen Inkuisisi terhadap para Ordo Bait Allah (Ksatria Templar) di awal abad ke-14. Nama ini muncul pertama kali dalam pengertian bahasa percakapan Inggris popular di abad ke-19 dalam perdebatan dan spekulasi mengenai alasan-alasan penindasan terhadap Ksatria Templar.[2] Semenjak tahun 1855, nama Bafomet telah dihubungkan dengan gambar "Kambing Duduk Bersila" karya Éliphas Lévi.

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  1. ^ ab Luy venseretz totz los cas/Cuy Bafometz a escarnitz/e·ls renegatz outrasalhitz ("with his [i.e. Jesus'] help you will defeat all the dogs whom Mahomet has led astray and the impudent renegades"). The relevant lines are translated in Michael Routledge (1999), "The Later Troubadours", in The Troubadours: An Introduction, Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay, edd. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 112.
  2. ^ "In the 19th century a fresh impetus was given to the discussion by the publication in 1813 of Raynouard's brilliant defence of the order. The challenge was taken up, among others, by the famous orientalist Friedrich von Hammer-Purgstall, who in 1818 published his Mysterium Baphometis revelatum, an attempt to prove that the Templars followed the doctrines and rites of the Gnostic Ophites, the argument being fortified with reproductions of obscene representations of supposed Gnostic ceremonies and of mystic symbols said to have been found in the Templars' buildings. Wilcke, while rejecting Hammer's main conclusions as unproved, argued in favour of the existence of a secret doctrine based, not on Gnosticism, but on the unitarianism of Islam, of which Baphomet (Mahomet) was the symbol. On the other hand, Wilhelm Havemann (Geschichte des Ausganges des Tempelherrenordens, Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1846) decided in favour of the innocence of the order. This view was also taken by a succession of German scholars, in England by C. G. Addison, and in France by a whole series of conspicuous writers: e.g. Mignet, Guizot, Renan, Lavocat. Others, like Boutaric, while rejecting the charge of heresy, accepted the evidence for the spuitio and the indecent kisses, explaining the former as a formula of forgotten meaning and the latter as a sign of fraternité!" Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.

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