Perjantanan di Yunani kuno

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Pasangan orang yang melakukan perjantanan di simposium, seperti yang digambarkan pada lukisan dinding makam dari koloni Yunani Paestum di Italia

Perjantanan di Yunani kuno adalah hubungan sosial yang diakui antara orang dewasa dan seorang laki-laki yang lebih muda biasanya yang masih di usia remaja.[1] Ini adalah karakteristik dari Kuno dan periode Klasik.[2] Beberapa ahli menemukan asal-usulnya dalam ritual inisiasi, terutama ritus peralihan di Kreta, di mana dikaitkan dengan pintu masuk ke dalam kehidupan militer dan agama Zeus.[3]

Kebiasaan sosial bernama paiderastia oleh orang Yunani yang kedua secara ideal dan dikritik dalam sastra kuno dan filsafat[4], namun tidak adanya formalitas dalam epos-epos Homer, dan tampaknya telah dikembangkan di akhir abad ke-7 SM sebagai aspek budaya homososial Yunaniref>Thomas Hubbard, "Pindar's Tenth Olympian and Athlete-Trainer Pederasty," in Same–Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity, pp. 143 and 163 (note 37), with cautions about the term "homosocial" from Percy, p. 49, note 5.</ref> , yang ditandai juga dengan ketelanjangan atletik dan artistik, pernikahan yang ditunda untuk bangsawan, simposium, dan pengasingan sosial perempuan.[5] Pengaruh perjantanan begitu meluas bahwa itu telah disebut "model budaya utama untuk hubungan bebas antara warga negara."[6]

Terminologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asal mula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Aspek sosial[sunting | sunting sumber]

Aspek politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pandangan filosofis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dalam seni[sunting | sunting sumber]

Praktek seksual[sunting | sunting sumber]

Konvensi puitis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dalam mitos dan agama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Karakteristik regional[sunting | sunting sumber]

Yunani timur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sparta[sunting | sunting sumber]

Megara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Athena[sunting | sunting sumber]

Boeotia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengetahuan modern[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ C.D.C. Reeve, Plato on Love: Lysis, Symposium, Phaedrus, Alcibiades with Selections from Republic and Laws (Hackett, 2006), p. xxi online; Martti Nissinen, Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective, translated by Kirsi Stjerna (Augsburg Fortress, 1998, 2004), p. 57 online; Nigel Blake et al., Education in an Age of Nihilism (Routledge, 2000), p. 183 online.
  2. ^ Nissinen, Homoeroticism in the Biblical World, p. 57; William Armstrong Percy III, "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities," in Same–Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West (Binghamton: Haworth, 2005), p. 17. Sexual variety, not excluding paiderastia, was characteristic of the Hellenistic era; see Peter Green, "Sex and Classical Literature," in Classical Bearings: Interpreting Ancient Culture and History (University of California Press, 1989, 1998), p. 146 online.
  3. ^ Robert B. Koehl, "The Chieftain Cup and a Minoan Rite of Passage," Journal of Hellenic Studies 106 (1986) 99–110, with a survey of the relevant scholarship including that of Arthur Evans (p. 100) and others such as H. Jeanmaire and R.F. Willetts (pp. 104–105); Deborah Kamen, "The Life Cycle in Archaic Greece," in The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece (Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 91–92. Kenneth Dover, a pioneer in the study of Greek homosexuality, rejects the initiation theory of origin; see "Greek Homosexuality and Initiation," in Que(e)rying Religion: A Critical Anthology (Continuum, 1997), pp. 19–38. For Dover, it seems, the argument that Greek paiderastia as a social custom was related to rites of passage constitutes a denial of homosexuality as natural or innate; this may be to overstate or misrepresent what the initiatory theorists have said. The initiatory theory does not claim to account for the existence of homosexuality, but for formal paiderastia.
  4. ^ For examples, see Kenneth Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Harvard University Press, 1978, 1898), p. 165, note 18, where the eschatological value of paiderastia for the soul in Plato is noted; Paul Gilabert Barberà, "John Addington Symonds. A Problem in Greek Ethics. Plutarch's Eroticus Quoted Only in Some Footnotes? Why?" in The Statesman in Plutarch's Works (Brill, 2004), p. 303 online; and the pioneering view of Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex (Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1921, 3rd ed.), vol. 2, p. 12 online. For Stoic "utopian" views of paiderastia, see Doyne Dawson, Cities of the Gods: Communist Utopias in Greek Thought (Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 192 online.
  5. ^ Percy, "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities," p. 17 online et passim.
  6. ^ Dawson, Cities of the Gods, p. 193. See also George Boys-Stones, "Eros in Government: Zeno and the Virtuous City," Classical Quarterly 48 (1998), 168–174: "there is a certain kind of sexual relationship which was considered by many Greeks to be very important for the cohesion of the city: sexual relations between men and youths. Such relationships were taken to play such an important role in fostering cohesion where it mattered — among the male population — that Lycurgus even gave them official recognition in his constitution for Sparta" (p. 169).

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Dover, Kenneth J. Greek Homosexuality. Duckworth 1978.
  • Dover, Kenneth J. "Greek Homosexuality and Initiation." In Que(e)rying Religion: A Critical Anthology. Continuum, 1997, pp. 19–38.
  • Ellis, Havelock. Studies in the Psychology of Sex, vol. 2: Sexual Inversion. Project Gutenberg text
  • Ferrari, Gloria. FIgures of Speech: Men and Maidens in Ancient Greece. University of Chicago Press, 2002.
  • Hubbard, Thomas K. Homosexuality in Greece and Rome. University of California Press, 2003.[1]
  • Johnson, Marguerite, and Ryan, Terry. Sexuality in Greek and Roman Society and Literature: A Sourcebook. Routledge, 2005.
  • Lear, Andrew, and Eva Cantarella. Images of Ancient Greek Pederasty: Boys Were Their Gods. Routledge, 2008. ISBN 978-0415223676.
  • Nussbaum, Martha. Sex and Social Justice. Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Percy, William A. Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. University of Illinois Press, 1996.
  • Same–Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. Binghamton: Haworth, 2005.
  • Sergent, Bernard. Homosexuality in Greek Myth. Beacon Press, 1986.