Penggelembungan (bisnis)

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Penggelembungan adalah selisih harga jual barang dengan biaya harga barang/jasa.[1] A markup is added on to the total cost incurred by the producer of a good or service in order to create a profit. The total cost reflects the total amount of both fixed and variable expenses to produce and distribute a product.[2] Markup can be expressed as a fixed amount or as a percentage of the total cost or selling price.[1] Retail markup is commonly calculated as the difference between wholesale price and retail price, as a percentage of wholesale. Other methods are also used.

Determinasi harga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penggelembungan tetap[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Asumsi: Harga jual = $2500, Biaya produksi = $2000
Penggelembungan = Harga jual - Biaya
$500 = $2500 - $2000

Persentase penggelembungan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Biaya x (Penggelembungan + 1) = Harga jual
atau solusi penggelembungan = (harga jual / biaya) - 1
atau solusi penggelembungan = (harga jual - biaya) / biaya
  • Asumsi harga jual = $1.99 dan biaya = $1.40
penggelembungan = ($1.99 / 1.40) - 1 = 42%
atau penggelembungan = ($1.99 - $1.40) / $1.40 = 42%
Harga jual - Harga = Harga jual x Laba marjin
karena itu Laba marjin = (Harga jual - Biaya) / Haraga jual
Laba = 1 - (1 / (Penggelembungan + 1))
atau laba = Penggelembungan/(Penggelembungan + 1)
Margin = 1 - (1 / (1 + 0.42)) = 29.5%
atau laba = ($1.99 - $1.40) / $1.99 = 29.6%

Aggregate supply framework[sunting | sunting sumber]

P = (1+μ) W. Where μ is the markup over costs. This is the pricing equation.

W = F(u,z) Pe . This is the wage setting relation. u is unemployment which negatively affects wages and z the catch all variable positively affects wages.

Sub the wage setting into the price setting to get the aggregate supply curve.

P = Pe(1+μ) F(u,z). This is the aggregate supply curve. Where the price is determined by expected price, unemployment and z the catch all variable.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Ingels, Jack (2009). Ornamental Horticulture: Science, Operations, & Management. Cengage Learning. hlm. 601. ISBN 978-1-4354-9816-7. 
  2. ^ Pradhan, Swapna (2007). Retailing Management. Tata McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-062020-9.