O le Ao o le Malo
O le Ao o le Malo adalah kepala negara Samoa yang terjemahannya kira-kira seperti itu. (A more literal translation might be "the chieftain of the government" — ao is a title generally reserved for chiefs (matai), while malo means "government"). The O le Ao o le Malo is styled as His Highness.
The position is provided for in Part III of the 1960 Samoan constitution. At the time the constitution was adopted it was anticipated that future heads of state would be chosen from among the four Tama-a-Aiga "royal" paramount chiefs. However, this is not required by the constitution and for this reason Samoa can be considered a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy like the United Kingdom. The government Press Secretariat describes O le Ao o le Malo as a "ceremonial president". The current O le Ao o le Malo is Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi, who was elected to a five year term on 16 June 2007.
When Samoa became independent in 1962, the two highest of the four paramount chiefs (Tama a Aiga) — Malietoa Tanumafili and Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole, were jointly named to the office by the 1960 Constitution for life. Each respectively represented the Malietoa and Tupua, which have been described as the "two main family lineages" of Samoa. They were jointly known as O Ao o le Malo and severally as O le Ao o le Malo. Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole died a year later in 1963, leaving Malietoa Tanumafili as the sole holder of the office until his death in 2007, aged 95. His replacement, Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi, who had served two prior terms as Prime Minister of Samoa, was elected by the Samoan Legislative Assembly, called the Fono, as the third O le Ao o le Malo, for a five year term beginning on 20 June 2007. He is the elder son of Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole.
Article 18 of the Samoan constitution sets the qualifications for the position of O le Ao o le Malo. The O le Ao o le Malo must:
- be qualified to be elected as a Member of Parliament
- possess such qualifications as the Fono may determine from time to time by resolution
- not have been previously removed from the office of the Head of State on the grounds of misbehavior or infirmity.
Term of office [sunting]
The O le Ao o le Malo is elected by the Fono for five years and can be reelected. The exceptions to this were Malietoa Tanumafili and Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole, who were made exempt to the five year term provided for in Article 19. The constitution does not set forth a limit on the number of terms an O le Ao o le Malo can serve. There is an understanding that the office is to alternate between the Malietoa and Tupua families.
Removal from office can occur in four ways:
- removal by the Fono on the grounds of misbehavior or mental or physical infirmity
- approval by two thirds of the Fono of a resolution for removal that is proposed and supported by at least a fourth of its members following at least 14 days between the notice of motion and debate on the motion
Duties and powers [sunting]
The position is that of a ceremonial president, with actual power being held by the Prime Minister, whom the O le Ao o le Malo appoints on the recommendation of the Fono. While the O le Ao o le Malo "does not play an active role in government", he can dissolve the Fono and no act of parliament will become law without his approval. The O le Ao o le Malo can also grant pardons.
Daftar Pemegang Jabatan [sunting]
|#||Pejabat||Awal Jabatan||Akhir Jabatan||Catatan|
|1||Malietoa Tanumafili II||1 Januari 1962||11 Mei 2007||Terpilih ketika hidup. Menjabat bersama Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole dari 5 April 1963. Meninggal saat menjabat.|
|Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole||5 April 1963||Terpilih ketika hidup. Menjabat bersama Malietoa Tanumafili II. Meninggal saat menjabat.|
|–||Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi||11 Mei 2007||20 Juni 2007||Pejabat (anggota Dewan Perwakilan).|
|Tuimaleali'ifano Va'aletoa Sualauvi II|
|2||Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi||20 Juni 2007||Sedang Menjabat||Terpilih untuk masa jabatan 5 tahun.|
Lihat juga [sunting]
- ^ Samoalive dictionary
- ^ Websters Online Dictionary
- ^ a b c d e "Constitution of the Independent State of Western Samoa 1960". University of the South Pacific. Diakses 2007-12-28.
- ^ a b New Zealand Herald. "New head of state for Samoa". Diakses 2007-06-16.
- ^ Hassall, Graham and Saunders, Cheryl (2002). Asia-Pacific Constitutional Systems. Cambridge University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0521591295.
- ^ a b New Zealand Herald. "Name says it all for Samoa's new leader". Diakses 2007-12-28.
- ^ "Samoan king dies at the age of 94". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-05-13. Diakses 2007-05-13.
- ^ Jackson, Cherelle (13 May 2007). "Samoa's Head of State Malietoa dies aged 95". The New Zealand Herald. Diakses 1 November 2011.
- ^ Kogan Page, World of information (2003). Asia and Pacific Review 2003/04, 21st edition. Essex, England: Walden Publishing Ltd. p. 41. ISBN 0749440635.
- ^ eDiplomat.com. "Samoa". Diakses 2007-12-28.