Libertarianisme

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Libertarianisme (bahasa Latin: liber, bebas) adalah klasifikasi filosofi politik yang menjunjung tinggi kebebasan sebagai fokus utama mereka dan sebagai tujuan. Mereka berusaha untuk memaksimalkan otonomi dan kebebasan memilih, menekankan kebebasan politik, asosiasi sukarela dan keutamaan penilaian individu.[1][2] Sementara libertarian berbagi sebuah skeptisisme otoritas, mereka menyimpang pada lingkup penentangan mereka terhadap sistem politik dan ekonomi yang ada. Berbagai sekolah pemikiran libertarian menawarkan berbagai pandangan mengenai fungsi yang sah dari negara dan kekuasaan pribadi, sering dipanggil untuk membatasi atau bahkan untuk sepenuhnya membubarkan lembaga-lembaga sosial yang dapat menjalar. Alih-alih mewujudkan sebuah teori yang sistematis kaku tunggal atau ideologi, libertarianisme telah diterapkan sebagai payung untuk berbagai ide-ide politik yang kadang-kadang sumbang dalam sejarah modern.

Meskipun beberapa libertarian kini menganjurkan kapitalisme laissez-faire dan hak milik pribadi yang kuat,[3] seperti di tanah, infrastruktur dan sumber daya alam, orang lain, sosialis libertarian terutama, berusaha untuk menghapuskan kapitalisme dan kepemilikan pribadi atas alat-alat produksi yang mendukung kepemilikan umum atau koperasi dan manajemen.[4][5] Sementara minarchisme percaya pemerintahan terpusat yang terbatas diperlukan untuk melindungi individu dan properti mereka dari pelanggaran tertentu, anarkisme mengusulkan untuk sepenuhnya menghilangkan negara sebagai sistem politik yang sah.[6][7]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Woodcock, George (2004). Anarchism: A History Of Libertarian Ideas And Movements. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. hlm. 16. ISBN 9781551116297. "for the very nature of the libertarian attitude -- its rejection of dogma, its deliberate avoidance of rigidly systematic theory, and, above all, its stress on extreme freedom of choice and on the primacy of the individual judgment" 
  2. ^ "Libertarianism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Diakses 20 May 2014. "libertarianism, political philosophy that takes individual liberty to be the primary political value" 
  3. ^ Hussain, Syed B. (2004). Encyclopedia of Capitalism. Vol. II : H-R.. New York: Facts on File Inc. hlm. 492. ISBN 0816052247. "In the modern world, political ideologies are largely defined by their attitude towards capitalism. Marxists want to overthrow it, liberals to curtail it extensively, conservatives to curtail it moderately. Those who maintain that capitalism is a excellent economic system, unfairly maligned, with little or no need for corrective government policy, are generally known as libertarians." 
  4. ^ Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1007. ISBN 1412988764. "There exist three major camps in libertarian thought: right-libertarianism, socialist libertarianism, and left-libertarianism"
  5. ^ Vallentyne, Peter (September 5, 2002). "Libertarianism". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (ed. Spring 2009). Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Diakses March 5, 2010. "Libertarianism is committed to full self-ownership. A distinction can be made, however, between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism, depending on the stance taken on how natural resources can be owned" 
  6. ^ Caplan, Bryan (2008). "Anarchism". In Hamowy, Ronald, ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. pp. 10–13. "Libertarianism puts severe limits on morally permissible government action. If one takes its strictures seriously, does libertarianism require the abolition of government, logically reducing the position to anarchism? Robert Nozick effectively captures this dilemma: 'Individuals have rights, and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights). So strong and far-reaching are these rights that they raise the question of what, if anything, the state and its official may do.' Libertarian political philosophers have extensively debated this question, and many conclude that the answer is 'Nothing'."
  7. ^ Friedman, David D. (2008). "libertarianism". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd Edition. "Libertarians differ among themselves in the degree to which they rely on rights-based or consequentialist arguments and on how far they take their conclusions, ranging from classical liberals, who wish only to drastically reduce government, to anarcho-capitalists who would replace all useful government functions with private alternatives."

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