Kudeta Turki 1980

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Kudeta Turki 12 September 1980 yang dilancarkan oleh Jenderal Kenan Evren adalah upaya kudeta ketiga di Republik Turki setelah kudeta tahun 1960 dan 1971.

Kudeta ini bermula dengan terjadinya konflik bersenjata antara sayap kanan dengan sayap kiri, yang seringkali merupakan perang proksi antara Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet.[1] Agar dapat melakukan intervensi, militer Turki membiarkan konflik semakin sengit[2][3] dan ada yang mengatakan mereka menggunakan strategi ketegangan.[4][5] Setelah kudeta dilancarkan, kekerasan langsung berhenti,[6] dan kudeta dianggap sebagai pemulihan ketertiban.[2] Kemudian, 50 orang dihukum mati, sementara 500.000 ditangkap dan ratusan orang tewas di penjara.[7]

Selama tiga tahun berikutnya, Angkatan Bersenjata Turki menguasai negara melalui Dewan Keamanan Nasional sebelum demokrasi akhirnya dikembalikan.[8]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Beki, Mehmet Akif (1997-01-17). "Whose gang is this?". Turkish Daily News (Hürriyet). Diakses 2008-10-12. 
  2. ^ a b "Önce ortam hazırlandı, sonra darbe haberi". Haber7 (dalam bahasa Turkish). 2008-09-12. Diakses 2008-10-15. 
  3. ^ Oğur, Yıldıray (2008-09-17). "12 Eylül’ün darbeci solcusu: Ali Haydar Saltık". Taraf (dalam bahasa Turkish). Diakses 2008-12-23. 
  4. ^ Ganser 2005, hlm. 235: Colonel Talat Turhan accused the United States for having fuelled the brutality from which Turkey suffered in the 1970s by setting up the Special Warfare Department, the Counter-Guerrilla secret army and the MIT and training them according to FM 30–31
  5. ^ Naylor, Robert T (2004). Hot Money and the Politics of Debt (ed. 3E). McGill-Queen's Press. hlm. 94. ISBN 978-0-7735-2743-0. Diakses 10 June 2010. "The fact that militias of all political tendencies seemed to be buying their arsenals from the same sources pointed to the possibility of a deliberate orchestration of the violence – of the sort P2 had attempted in Italy a few years earlier – to prepare the psychological climate for a military coup." 
  6. ^ Ustel, Aziz (2008-07-14). "Savcı, Ergenekon’u Kenan Evren’e sormalı asıl!". Star Gazete (dalam bahasa Turkish). Diakses 2008-10-21. "Ve 13 Eylül 1980’de Türkiye’yi on yıla yakın bir süredir kasıp kavuran terör ve adam öldürmeler bıçakla kesilir gibi kesildi." 
  7. ^ http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21571147-once-all-powerful-turkish-armed-forces-are-cowed-if-not-quite-impotent-erdogan-and-his Turkey and its army: Erdogan and his generals
  8. ^ Amnesty International, Turkey: Human Rights Denied, London, November 1988, AI Index: EUR/44/65/88, ISBN 978-0-86210-156-5, hal. 1.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ganser, Daniele (2005). NATO's Secret Armies. Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-5607-0. 
  • Herman, Edward S; Brodhead, Frank (1986). The Rise and Fall of the Bulgarian Connection. New York: Sheridan Square Publications. ISBN 978-0-940380-06-6.