Heliconius numata

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?Heliconius numata
Heliconius numata
Heliconius numata
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Animalia
Filum: Arthropoda
Kelas: Insecta
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Divisi: Rhopalocera
Famili: Nymphalidae
Upafamili: Heliconiinae
Genus: Heliconius
Spesies: H. numata
Nama binomial
Heliconius numata
(Cramer, 1780)[1]
Subspecies

many, see text

Sinonim
  • Papilio numata Cramer, [1780]
  • Eueides pione Hübner, 1816
  • Heliconius numata var. melanops Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius numata var. guiensis Riffarth, 1900
  • Heliconius numata isabellinus f. intermedia Boullet & Le Cerf, 1909
  • Heliconius numata f. melanopors Joicey & Kaye, 1917
  • Papilio silvana Stoll, [1781]
  • Heliconius diffusus Butler, 1873
  • Heliconius silvana var. divisus Kaye, 1906
  • Heliconius numata silvaniformis Joicey & Kaye, 1917
  • Heliconius silvana atakama Neustetter, 1931
  • Heliconius dryalus Hopffer, 1869
  • Heliconius ethra ab. brasiliensis Neustetter, 1907
  • Heliconius ethra var. hopfferi Neustetter, 1907
  • Heliconia aristiona Hewitson, [1853]
  • Heliconius aristiona var. peruana Hopffer, 1879
  • Heliconius aristiona var. splendidus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius aurora Bates, 1862
  • Heliconius numata var. isabellinus Bates, 1862
  • Heliconius eupharius Weymer, 1890
  • Heliconius gordius Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius floridus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius seraphion Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius gradatus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius aristiona aurora f. michaeli Neustetter, 1931
  • Heliconius aristiona aurora f. deflavata Neustetter, 1932
  • Heliconius aristiona idalion f. excelsa Neustetter, 1932
  • Heliconius euphone C. & R. Felder, 1862
  • Heliconius idalion Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius tleson Riffarth, 1901
  • Heliconius aganippe Riffarth, 1901
  • Heliconius aristiona lepidus Riffarth, 1907
  • Heliconius idalion f. confluens Neustetter, 1912
  • Heliconius euphone ab. nephele Seitz, 1916
  • Heliconius euphone ab. confluxus Seitz, 1916
  • Heliconius aristiona euphorbius Stichel, 1923
  • Heliconius mixta Apolinar, 1927
  • Heliconius numatus laura Neustetter, 1932
  • Heliconius messene C. & R. Felder, 1862
  • Heliconius sikinos Riffarth, 1901
  • Heliconius aristiona messene f. juncta Neustetter, 1925
  • Heliconius aristiona colombiana Apolinar, 1927
  • Heliconius aristiona messene f. euphrasinus Neustetter, 1928
  • Heliconius bicoloratus Butler, 1873
  • Heliconius bicoloratus var. phalaris Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconia arcuella Druce, 1874
  • Heliconius elegans Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius numatus praelautus Stichel, 1906
  • Heliconius nubifer Butler, 1875
  • Heliconius superioris Butler, 1875
  • Heliconius numata var. maecenas Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius numatus sincerus Riffarh, 1907
  • Heliconia numilia Herrich-Schäffer, 1865
  • Heliconius aulicus Weymer, 1883
  • Heliconius lenaeus Weymer, 1891
  • Heliconius colepta Riffarth, 1901
  • Heliconius lyrcaeus Weymer, 1891
  • Heliconius timaeus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius geminatus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius mirus var. illustris Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius silvana mirificus Stichel, 1906
  • Heliconius novatus subnutilus Stichel, 1906
  • Heliconius superioris var. mavors Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius numata superioris ab. translata Joicey & Kaye, 1917
  • Heliconius mirus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius leopardus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius spadicarius Weeks, 1901
  • Heliconius arethusa Riffarth, 1901
  • Helicons novatus obscurior Stichel, 1906
  • Heliconius novatus artemis Riffarth, 1907
  • Heliconius insolitus Avinoff, 1926
  • Heliconius novatus f. confluens Neustetter, 1931
  • Heliconius aristiona tarapotensis Riffarth, 1901
  • Heliconius staudingeri Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius staudingeri var. pretiosus Weymer, 1894
  • Heliconius aristiona lepidus f. gracilis Riffarth, 1907
  • Heliconius aristiona timaeus f. aristeus Neustetter, 1931
  • Heliconius aristiona staudingeri f. lutea Neustetter, 1931

Heliconius numata adalah spesies kupu-kupu asli Amerika Selatan yang dikenal karena mimikri kupu-kupu Melinaeanya.[2] Baik H. numata dan spesies Melinaea yang ditiru sama-sama tidak enak bagi predator, sehingga menjadi contoh mimikri Müllerian.[3]

Deskripsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

H. numatus adalah spesies neotropis yang lebih banyak ditemui di hutan sekunder daripada hutan primer. Spesies jantan dan betina sama-sama tertarik dengan bunga merah atau jingga, atau pakaian berwarna merah atau jingga. Telur dan larva dapat ditemui di jalaran tumbuhan Passiflora.[4]

Subspesies[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Heliconius numata numata (Surinam, Guyana Perancis, Guyana)
  • Heliconius numata silvana (Stoll, 1781) (Surinam, Guyana, Venezuela, Guatemala, Brasil: Pará, Amazonas)
  • Heliconius numata ethra (Hübner, [1831]) (Brasil: Espírito Santo)
  • Heliconius numata aristiona Hewitson, [1853] (Bolivia, Peru)
  • Heliconius numata aurora Bates, 1862 (Brasil: Amazonas, Kolombia, Bolivia, Peru)
  • Heliconius numata euphone C. & R. Felder, 1862 (Kolombia, Ekuador)
  • Heliconius numata messene C. & R. Felder, 1862 (Kolombia)
  • Heliconius numata bicoloratus Butler, 1873 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata arcuella Druce, 1874 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata nubifer Butler, 1875 (Brasil: Amazonas)
  • Heliconius numata superioris Butler, 1875 (Brasil: Amazonas, Pará, Venezuela)
  • Heliconius numata robigus Weymer, 1875 (Venezuela)
  • Heliconius numata aulicus Weymer, 1883 (Venezuela)
  • Heliconius numata lenaeus Weymer, 1891 (Ekuador)
  • Heliconius numata lyrcaeus Weymer, 1891 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata geminatus Weymer, 1894 (Brasil: Amazonas)
  • Heliconius numata illustris Weymer, 1894(Peru)
  • Heliconius numata mavors Weymer, 1894 (Brasil: Amazonas)
  • Heliconius numata mirus Weymer, 1894 (Bolivia)
  • Heliconius numata tarapotensis Riffarth, 1901 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata zobrysi Fruhstorfer, 1910 (Brasil: Mato Grosso)
  • Heliconius numata ignotus Joicey & Kaye, 1917 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata talboti Joicey & Kaye, 1917 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata pratti Joicey & Kaye, 1917 (Peru)
  • Heliconius numata peeblesi Joicey & Talbot, 1925 (Venezuela)
  • Heliconius numata jiparanaensis Neustetter, 1931 (Brasil: Rondônia)
  • Heliconius numata holzingeri Fernández & Brown, 1976 (Venezuela)
  • Heliconius numata sourensis Brown, 1976 (Brasil: Pará)

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Heliconius numata (Cramer 1780)". Tree of Life. Diakses 17 August 2011. 
  2. ^ Wade, Nicholas (15 August 2011). "A Supergene Paints Wings for Surviving Biological War". NY Times. Diakses 17 August 2011. 
  3. ^ "Tiger-patterned Heliconius numata and Melinaea mimicry rings in NE Peru". University College London. Diakses 19 August 2011. 
  4. ^ Brown, Keith S.; Woodruff W. Benson (1974). "Adaptive polymorphism associated with multiple Müllerian mimicry in Heliconius numata (Lepid. Nymph.)". Biotropica 6 (4). JSTOR 2989666.