Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Amerika Serikat

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Lambang Dewan Perwakilan Amerika Serikat
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Amerika Serikat
United States House of Representatives
Kongres Amerika Serikat ke 112
Coat of arms or logo
Jenis
Jenis Majelis rendah
Kepemimpinan
Ketua John Boehner, (R)
sejak January 5, 2011
Pimpin Mayoritas Eric Cantor, (R)
sejak January 5, 2011
Pimpin Minoritas Nancy Pelosi, (R)
sejak January 5, 2011
Struktur
Anggota 435 voting members
6 non-voting members
Kelompok politik      Republican Party (241)
     Democratic Party (191)
112USHouseStructure.svg
Pemilihan
Pemilihan terakhir November 2, 2010
Tempat bersidang
Obama Health Care Speech to Joint Session of Congress.jpg
House chamber of the U.S. Capitol
Washington, D.C.
Situs web
www.house.gov

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Amerika Serikat (bahasa Inggris: United States House of Representatives), bersama dengan Senat Amerika Serikat (bahasa Inggris: US Senate), adalah salah satu dari dua kamar pada Kongres Amerika Serikat. Masing-masing negara bagian diwakili dalam Dewan Perwakilan secara proporsional sesuai dengan jumlah penduduknya, namun masing-masing negara bagian sekurang-kurangnya mempunyai seorang Anggota Perwakilan. Jumlah seluruh Anggota Perwakilan saat ini ditetapkan 435 orang oleh Undang-Undang Pembagian (Apportionment Act) Tahun 1911, meskipun Kongres dapat meningkatkan jumlah itu. Masing-masing Anggota Dewan menjabat selama dua tahun dan dapat dipilih kembali untuk waktu yang tidak terbatas. Ketua Dewan disebut Speaker.

Konsep kongres dua kamar berasal dari keinginan para Bapak Pendiri Amerika Serikat untuk menciptakan sebuah "dewan perwakilan rakyat" yang sedapat mungkin menyerupai dan mengikuti pendapat umum, dibandingkan dengan Senat yang lebih diwarnai oleh perdebatan, yang lebih terdidik dan berhati-hati yang tidak begitu dipengaruhi oleh dorongan sentimen massa. Umumnya Dewan ini disebut "majelis rendah", dan Senat sebagai "majelis tinggi", meskipun Konstitusi AS tidak menggunakan istilah seperti itu. Konstitusi mensyaratkan bahwa persetujuan kedua dewan ini diperlukan agar suatu rancangan undang-undang dapat disetujui.

Keanggotaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Setiap negara bagian Amerika Serikat mempunyai dua orang anggota DPR yang mempunyai masa jabatan 6 tahun, dan dapat dipilih kembali tanpa batas. Karena Pemilu AS diselenggarakan setiap dua tahun (setiap bulan November tahun genap), setiap kursi anggota DPR akan habis masanya setiap 3 kali pemilihan.

Komposisi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Saat ini, DPR Amerika Serikat terdiri dari 435 anggotanya.

     Mayoritas parlemen
Tahun Partai Politik
Demokrat Republik Independen
2000 212 221 2
2002 204 229 1
2004 202 232 1
2006 233 202 -
2008 178 257 -
2010 192 240 3
2012

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tinjauan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Galloway, George B. History of the House of Representatives. Edisi revisi, 1976. 408 hlm.
  • MacNeil, Neil. Forge of Democracy: The House of Representatives (1963) sejarah popular
  • Peters, Ronald M., Jr. The American Speakership: The Office in Historical Perspective. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1990. 354 hlm.
  • Polsby, Nelson W. How Congress Evolves: Social Bases of Institutional Change Oxford U. Press, 2003. 257 hlm.
  • Poole, Keith T. and Howard Rosenthal, Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting Oxford University Press, 1997; menggunakan angka NOMINASI mereka untuk menangani daftar hadir
  • Remini, Robert V. The House: The History of the House of Representatives (2006), sejarah yang standar, ditulis secara ilmiah
  • Sinclair, Barbara. Majority Leadership in the U.S. House. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1984. 263 hlm.
  • Zelizer, Julian E. ed. The American Congress: The Building of Democracy (2004), tinjauan oleh sejumlah pakar

Sebelum 1945[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • David W. Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins. Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress (2002)
  • Brady, David W. Congressional Voting in a Partisan Era: A Study of the McKinley Houses and a Comparison to the Modern House of Representatives. U. Pr. of Kansas, 1973. 273 hlm.
  • Cooper, Joseph. The Origins of the Standing Committees and the Development of the Modern House. Rice U. Press, 1970. 167 hlm.
  • Linda Grant de Pauw, Charlene Bangs Bickford, and Kenneth R. Bowling, eds. Documentary History of the First Federal Congress of the United States of America, March 4, 1789-March 3, 1791 (1992- 2006) 14 jilid dokumen primer
  • Ronald L. Hatzenbuehler, "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives in 1812," William and Mary Quarterly 29 (1972): 367-90;
  • Henig, Gerald S. Henry Winter Davis: Antebellum and Civil War Congressman from Maryland. 1973. 332 hlm. Pemimpin radikal dari masa Perang Saudara
  • Klingman, Peter D. Josiah Walls: Florida's Black Congressman of Reconstruction. U. Press of Florida, 1976. 157 hlm.
  • Lowitt, Richard. George W. Norris: The Making of a Progressive, 1861-1912 Vol. 1. Syracuse U. Press, 1963. pemimpin pemberontakan Republikan pada 1910
  • Margulies, Herbert F. Reconciliation and Revival: James R. Mann and the House Republicans in the Wilson Era. Greenwood, 1996. 242 hlm.
  • Patterson, James. Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933-39 (1967)
  • Robert V. Remini. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1992) . Ketua pada sebagian besar periode 1811-1825
  • Strahan, Randall; Moscardelli, Vincent G.; Haspel, Moshe; and Wike, Richard S. "The Clay Speakership Revisited" Polity 2000 32(4): 561-593. Issn: 0032-3497 menggunakan analisis daftar hadir
  • Stewart, Charles H., III. Budget Reform Politics: The Design of the Appropriations Process in the House of Representatives, 1865-1921. Cambridge U. Press, 1989. 254 hlm.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (1997) pemimpin mayoritas pada 1860-an
  • Waller, Robert A. Rainey of Illinois: A Political Biography, 1903-34. U. of Illinois Press, 1977. 260 hlm. Ketua dari Demokrat 1932-34

Sejak 1945[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 2006: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (2005). Diterbitkan setiap dua tahun sejak 1975; sangat terinci tentang setiap negara bagian, distrik dan anggota.
  • Albert, Carl and Goble, Danney. Little Giant: The Life and Times of Speaker Carl Albert. U. of Oklahoma Press, 1990. 388 hlm. Ketua pada 1970-an
  • Barry, John M. The Ambition and the Power: The Fall of Jim Wright. A True Story of Washington. Viking, 1989. 768 hlm. Ketua pada 1980-an
  • Berard, Stanley P. Southern Democrats in the U.S. House of Representatives. U. of Oklahoma Press, 2001. 250 hlm.
  • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation: 2001-2004: A Review of Government and Politics: 107th and 108th Congresses (2005); sangat tebal, ringkasan yang sangat terinci tentang aktivitas Kongres, serta keputusan-keputusan eksekutif dan yudisial penting; berdasarkan Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report dan Almanak Tahunan CQ.
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1997-2001 (2002)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1993-1996 (1998)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1989-1992 (1993)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1985-1988 (1989)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1981-1984 (1985)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1977-1980 (1981)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1973-1976 (1977)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1969-1972 (1973)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1965-1968 (1969)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1945-1964 (1965), terbitan pertama dari seri ini
  • Cox, Gary W. and McCubbins, Mathew D. Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House. U. of California Press, 1993. 324 hlm.
  • Currie, James T. The United States House of Representatives. Krieger, 1988. 239 pp survai singkat
  • DeGregorio, Christine A. Networks of Champions: Leadership, Access, and Advocacy in the U.S. House of Representatives. U. of Michigan Press, 1997. 185 hlm.
  • Dierenfield, Bruce J. Keeper of the Rules: Congressman Howard W. Smith of Virginia U. Press of Virginia, 1987. 306 hlm. pemimpin Koalisi konservatif 1940-66
  • Farrell, John A. Tip O'Neill and the Democratic Century Little, Brown, 2001. 776 hlm. Ketua Kongres dari Demokrat pada 1980-an
  • Gertzog, Irwin J. Congressional Women: Their Recruitment, Treatment, and Behavior Praeger, 1984. 291 hlm.
  • Hardeman, D. B. and Bacon, Donald C. Rayburn: A Biography. Texas Monthly Press, 1987. 554 hlm.
  • Hechler, Ken. Toward the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959-79. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1980. 1073 hlm.
  • Hibbing, John R. Congressional Careers: Contours of Life in the U.S. House of Representatives. U. of North Carolina Press, 1991. 213 hlm.
  • Jacobs, John. A Rage for Justice: The Passion and Politics of Phillip Burton. U. of California Press., 1995. 578 hlm. pemimpin Demokrat liberal pada 1970-an
  • Jacobson, Gary C. The Electoral Origins of Divided Government: Competition in U.S. House Elections, 1946-1988. Westview, 1990. 152 hlm.
  • Kiewiet, D. Roderick and McCubbins, Mathew D. The Logic of Delegation: Congressional Parties and the Appropriations Process. U. of Chicago Press, 1991. 286 hlm.
  • Merriner, James L. Mr. Chairman: Power in Dan Rostenkowski's America. Southern Illinois U. Pr., 1999. 333 hlm. Ketua Demokrat dari Sarana dan Prasarana pada 1980-an
  • Price, David E. The Congressional Experience: A View from the Hill. Westview, 1992. 194 hlm. oleh seorang ahli ilmu politik yang berdinas di Dewan
  • Rohde, David W. Parties and Leaders in the Postreform House. U. of Chicago Press, 1991. 232 hlm.
  • Rohde, David W. and Kenneth A. Shepsle, "Leaders and Followers in the House of Representatives: Reflections on Woodrow Wilson's Congressional Government," Congress & the Presidency 14 (1987): 111-33
  • Schooley, C. Herschel. Missouri's Cannon in the House. Marceline, Mo.: Walsworth, 1977. 282 hlm. Mengetuai Apropriasi pada 1960-an
  • Schickler, Eric. Disjointed Pluralism: Institutional Innovation and the Development of the U.S. Congress (2001)
  • Shelley II, Mack C. The Permanent Majority: The Conservative Coalition in the United States Congress (1983)
  • Sinclair, Barbara. Legislators, Leaders, and Lawmaking: The U.S. House of Representatives in the Postreform Era. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1995. 329 hlm.
  • Sinclair, Barbara. Congressional Realignment, 1925-1978. U. of Texas Press, 1982. 201 hlm.
  • Steinberg, Alfred. Sam Rayburn: A Biography. Hawthorn, 1975. 391 hlm. biografi populer
  • Strahan, Randall. New Ways and Means: Reform and Change in a Congressional Committee. U. of North Carolina Press, 1990. 218 hlm.
  • VanBeek, Stephen D. Post-Passage Politics: Bicameral Resolution in Congress. U. of Pittsburgh Press, 1995. 227 hlm.
  • Julian E. Zelizer. On Capitol Hill : The Struggle to Reform Congress and its Consequences, 1948-2000 (2006)

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Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]