Warga Arab di Israel

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Warga Arab di Israel
(عرب إسرائيل (العرب الإسرائيليون
עֲרָבִים אֶזרָחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל
Total populasi
1,658,000
Lebih dari 278,000 di Yerusalem Timur dan Dataran Tinggi Golan (2012)
20.7% of Israeli population[1][2]
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
 Israel
Bahasa
Bahasa Arab Palestina, Dialek Bedouin dan Ibrani
Agama
Islam 83.8% (kebanyakan Sunni), Kristen 8.4% dan Druze 8.2%[1]
Peta populasi Arab, 2015

Warga Arab di Israel[3] atau populasi Arab di Israel adalah warga negara Israel, yang warisan lingusitik dan budaya atau identitas etnisnya adalah Arab. Kebanyakan orang Arab di Israel adalah Muslim namun beberapa adalah Kristen atau Druze.[4] Beberapa diidentifikasikan sebagai orang Palestina dan umumnya menyebut diri mereka sendiri sebagai warga Palestina di Israel. Pengucapan tradisional kebanyakan warga Arab, tanpa memandang agama, adalah dialek Arab Palestina. Kebanyakan warga Arab di Israel merupakan dwi-bahasa, bahasa kedua mereka adalah bahasa Ibrani Modern. Menurut afiliasi keagamaan, kebanyakan adalah Muslim, terutama Islam cabang Sunni. Terdapat minoritas Kristen Arab signifikan dari berbagai denominasi Kristen serta Druze, dan juga komunitas keagamaan lainnya.

Menurut Biro Statistik Pusat Israel, populasi Arab pada 2013 diperkirakan berjumlah 1,658,000, mewakili 20.7% dari populasi negara tersebut.[2] Mayoritas mengidentifikasikan diri mereka sendiri sebagai Arab atau Palestina menurut kebangsaan dan Israel menurut kewarganegaraan.[5][6][7] Beberapa memiliki keluarga berdarah Palestina di Tepi Barat dan Jalur Gaza, serta para pengungsi Palestina di Yordania, Suriah dan Lebanon. Negev Bedouin dan Druze lebih diidentifikasikan sebagai warga Israel ketimbang warga Arab di Israel.[8][9][10][11]

Kebanyakan orang Arab yang tinggal di Yerusalem Timur dan Dataran Tinggi Golan, yang diduduki oleh Israel pada Perang Enam Hari tahun 1967 dan kemudian dianeksasi, ditawarkan kewarganegaraan Israel, tetapi kebanyakan menolak, tak ingin mengakui klaim kedaulatan Israel. Mereka menjadi pemukim permanen sebagai gantinya.[12] Mereka yang berhak atas kewarganegaraan, dapat memasukki layanan munisipal, dan memiliki hak suara munisipal.[13]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama CBS
  2. ^ a b "65th Independence Day - More than 8 Million Residents in the State of Israel" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 14 April 2013. Diakses tanggal 6 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Margalith, Haim (Winter 1953). "Enactment of a Nationality Law in Israel". The American Journal of Comparative Law. American Society of Comparative Law. 2 (1): 63–66. doi:10.2307/837997. JSTOR 837997. The Israeli Nationality Law came into effect on 14 July 1952. Between Israel's declaration of independence on 14 May 1948 and the passage of this bill four years later, there technically were no Israeli citizens. In this article, the phrase "Arab citizen" is used to refer to the Arab population in Israel, even in the period after the 1949 armistice agreement and before the passage of the Nationality Law in 1952.
  4. ^ "The Arab Population in Israel" (PDF). Biro Statistik Pusat Israel. Diakses tanggal 9 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "Identity Crisis: Israel and its Arab Citizens". Middle East Report N° 25. International Crisis Group. 4 March 2004. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 13 March 2011. Diakses tanggal 14 April 2011. . "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."
  6. ^ Johnathan Marcus (2 May 2005). "Israeli Arabs: 'Unequal citizens'". BBC News. Diakses tanggal 6 December 2007. 
  7. ^ An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Poll: Most Israelis see themselves as Jewish first, Israeli second
  8. ^ Steven Dinero (2004). "New Identity/Identities Formulation in a Post-Nomadic Community: The Case of the Bedouin of the Negev". 6 (3). National Identities: 261–275. 
  9. ^ The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s, by Gabriel Ben-Dor, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 1995-06-01. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
  10. ^ Mya Guarnieri, Where is the Bedouin Intifada? The Alternative Information Center (AIC), February 9, 2012.
  11. ^ Israel's Arab citizens: Key facts and current realities, UK Task Force, June 2012.
  12. ^ "BBC News – Surge in East Jerusalem Palestinians losing residency". news.bbc.co.uk. 2 December 2009. Diakses tanggal 17 May 2011. 
  13. ^ "Question of Palestine: Jerusalem". United Nations. 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Sorek, Tamir (2015). Palestinian Commemoration in Israel: Calendars, Monuments, and Martyrs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804795203. 
  • Morris, Benny, 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War, (2009) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15112-1
  • Orgad, Liav (PhD), IDC, Hertzlia, "Internationalizing the issue of Israeli Arabs", Maariv, 19 March 2006 page 7.
  • "Israel's Arab Citizens: The Continuing Struggle" by Mark Tessler; Audra K. Grant. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 555, Israel in Transition. (Jan., 1998), pp. 97–113. JSTOR 1049214.
  • The Israeli Palestinians: an Arab minority in the Jewish state / Alexander Bligh 2003. (book)"Table of contents for Library of Congress control number 2002154407". Diakses tanggal 14 June 2008. 
  • Tall shadows: interviews with Israeli Arabs / Smadar Bakovic 2006 English Book 313 p. Lanham, MD: Hamilton Books, ; ISBN 0-7618-3289-0
  • Israel's Arab Citizens / Laurence Louër; John King 2006 London: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd. ISBN 1-85065-798-X
  • Arab citizens in Israel: the ongoing conflict with the state / Massoud Ahmad Eghbarieh. Thesis (PhD). University of Maryland at College Park, 1991.
  • Identity crisis: Israel and its Arab citizens. International Crisis Group. 2004.
  • Pappe, Ilan, The Forgotten Palestinians: A History of the Palestinians in Israel, (2011) Yale University Press
  • Peleg, Ilan, and Dov Waxman, Israel's Palestinians: The Conflict Within, (2011) Cambridge University Press
  • Reiter, Yitzhak, National Minority, Regional Majority: Palestinian Arabs Versus Jews in Israel (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution), (2009) Syracuse Univ Press (Sd). ISBN 978-0-8156-3230-6