VVER

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WWER-1000 (or VVER-1000 as a direct transliteration of Russian ВВЭР-1000) is a 1000 MWe Russian nuclear power reactor of PWR type.

Water-Water Energetic Reactor (VVER), atau WWER (dari Rusia: Водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates sebagai Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor; air-air Reaktor) adalah serangkaian reaktor air bertekanan desain awalnya dikembangkan di Uni Soviet, dan sekarang Rusia, oleh OKB GIDROPRESS. Power output berkisar dari 300 MWe ke 1700 MWe dengan perkembangan dari desain Rusia terbaru. Pembangkit listrik VVER digunakan oleh Armenia, Bulgaria, China, Republik Ceko, Finlandia, Hungaria, India, Iran, Slowakia, Ukraina dan Rusia.

Deskripsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kepanjangan VVER dalam bahasa Rusia adalah “Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor – VVER”, Jika diartikan dalam bahasa Inggris adalah “Water-Water Power Reactor – WWER). Reaktor Daya (Pendingin) Air – (Moderator) Air, dalam bahasa Indonesia disingkat sebagai RDAA.

Tipe reaktor air tekan VVER buatan Rusia atau dahulu disebut Uni Soviet banyak beroperasi di negara-negara Eropa Timur yang dahulu di bawah pemerintahan Uni Soviet. Tipe yang ada adalah VVER 440 (daya listrik 440 MWe) dan VVER 1000 (daya listrik 1000 MWe). Untuk tipe VVER 440, terdapat dua generasi yaitu generasi VVER 440/V-230 dan VVER 440/V-213. Oleh negara-negara Eropa Barat, tipe VVER 440/V-230 ditengarai mempunyai masalah yang berkaitan dengan keselamatan, yaitu sistem pendingin darurat tidak memadai dan tidak ada struktur konstruksi bejana tekan pengungkung reaktor. Oleh karena itu desain reaktor tipe ini mendapat prioritas IAEA untuk ditinjau ulang. Tetapi reaktor generasi ketiga, yaitu VVER-1000, mempunyai banyak kemiripan dengan reaktor air tekan buatan Eropa Barat, sehingga faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan keselamatan dapat disejajarkan dengan reaktor serupa buatan Eropa Barat. Bahkan saat ini telah didesain reaktor yang mempunyai faktor keselamatan dan ekonomi yang lebih tinggi, yaitu VVER-640. Desain reaktor ini telah mendapat kepercayaan dan beberapa di antaranya direncanakan untuk dibangun. Penyempurnaan reaktor tipe VVER-1000 adalah NP-1100. Sementara itu dikembangkan pula PBER-600, suatu reaktor bentuk modular yang dapat ditempatkan di daerah perkotaan.

Instalasi energi[sunting | sunting sumber]

List of operational, planned and VVER installations under construction
Power plant Country Reactors Notes
Akkuyu Turkey (4 × VVER-1200/513) (AES-2006 with TOI-Standard) Construction start expected for 2015.
Balakovo Russia 4 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Unit 5 and 6 construction suspended.
Belene Bulgaria (2 × VVER-1000/466B) Suspended.[1]
Bohunice Slowakia 2 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-440/213
Split in two plants, V-1 and V-2 with two reactors each. VVER-440/230 units at V-1 plant decommissioned in 2006 and 2008.
Bushehr Iran 1 × VVER-1000/446
(3 × VVER-1000/446)
A version of the V-320 adapted to the Bushehr site.[2] Unit 2 and 3 planned, unit 4 cancelled.
Dukovany Czech Republic 4 × VVER 440/213 Now upgraded to 502 MW in 2009-2012.
Greifswald Germany 4 × VVER-440/230
1 × VVER-440/213
(3 × VVER-440/213)
Decommissioned. Unit 6 finished, but never operated. Unit 7 and 8 construction suspended.
Kalinin Russia 2 × VVER-1000/338
2 × VVER-1000/320
Unit 4 operational 2011.
Hanhikivi Finland 1 × VVER-1200/491 Planned,[3] operational 2024.
Khmelnitskiy Ukraine 2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/392B)
Unit 3 and 4 under construction.
Kola Russia 2 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-440/213
Koodankulam India 1 × VVER-1000/412 (AES-92)
(1 × VVER-1000/412) (AES-92)
Unit 1 operational since July 2013 and Unit 2 currently under construction.[4] 4 additional Units planned.
Kozloduy Bulgaria 4 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-1000
VVER-440/230 units decommissioned 2004-2007.
Leningrad II Russia 2 × VVER-1200/491
(2 × VVER-1200/491)
The units are the prototypes of the VVER-1200/491 (AES-2006) and under construction.
Loviisa Finland 2 × VVER-440/213 Western control systems, Totally different containment structures. Later modified for a 496 MW output.
Metsamor Armenia 2 × VVER-440/270 One reactor was shut down in 1989.
Mochovce Slowakia 2 × VVER-440/213
(2 × VVER-440/213)
Units 3 and 4 under construction, planned to be operational between 2015 and 2017.
Novovoronezh Russia 1 x VVER-210 (V-1)
1 x VVER-365 (V-3M)
2 × VVER-440/179
1 × VVER-1000/187
All units are prototypes. Unit 1 and 2 shutdown. Unit 3 modernised in 2002.[5]
Novovoronezh II Russia (2 × VVER-1200/392M) (AES-2006) The units are the prototypes of the VVER-1200/392M (AES-2006) and under construction.
Paks Hungary 4 × VVER-440/213 Two VVER-1200 units planned
Rheinsberg Germany 1 × VVER-70 (V-2) Unit decommissioned
Rivne Ukraine 2 × VVER-440/213
2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Unit 5 and 6 planning suspended.
South Ukraine Ukraine 1 × VVER-1000/302
1 × VVER-1000/338
1 × VVER-1000/320
(1 × VVER-1000/320)
unit 4 construction suspended.
Stendal Germany (4 × VVER-1000/320) All 4 units construction cancelled after Germany reunification.
Temelin Czech Republic 2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Unit 3 and 4 construction suspended. Now unit 3 and 4 in planning again (operated in 2025).
Tianwan China 2 × VVER-1000/428 (AES-91)
(6 × VVER-1000/428M)
Unit 3 to 8 firmly planned.
Volgodonsk Russia 2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Unit 3 and 4 is under construction and planned to be operational in 2013 and 2014.
Zaporizhzhia Ukraine 6 × VVER-1000/320 Largest nuclear power plant in Europe.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ (27 Feb 2013). "Bulgarian Parliament Votes to Abandon Belene Nuclear Plant". worldnuclearreport.org. Diakses pada 22 September 2014.
  2. ^ Anton Khlopkov and Anna Lutkova (21 August 2010). "The Bushehr NPP: Why did it take so long". Center for Energy and Security Studies. Diakses pada 1 Maret 2011.
  3. ^ http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-A-F/Finland/
  4. ^ Kudankulam becomes India’s first nuclear plant to generate 1,000MW power
  5. ^ "New life of Novovoronezh 3". Nuclear Engineering International. 3 June 2002. Diakses tanggal 9 March 2011. 

Galeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Operated reactors
NPP Balakovo VVER-1000
Bendera Rusia NPP Balakovo VVER-1000
NPP Rovno VVER-1000
Bendera Ukraina NPP Rivne VVER-1000
NPP Chmelnyckyj VVER-1000
Bendera Ukraina NPP Khmelnytsky VVER-1000
NPP Balakovo VVER-1000
Bendera Rusia NPP Balakovo VVER-1000
NPP Kudankulam VVER-1000
Bendera India NPP Kudankulam VVER-1000
Power Plants under construction
NPP Leningrad VVER-1200
Bendera Rusia NPP Leningrad VVER-1200
NPP Novovoronzh VVER-1200
Bendera Rusia NPP Novovoronezh VVER-1200
NPP Novovoronezh VVER-1200
Bendera Rusia NPP Novovoronezh VVER-1200
Canceled/Closed Power Plants
NPP Stendal VVER-1000
Bendera Jerman NPP Stendal VVER-1000
NPP Żarnowiec VVER-440
Bendera Polandia NPP Żarnowiec VVER-440
NPP Juragua VVER-440
Bendera Kuba NPP Juragua VVER-440
NPP Greifswald VVER-440
Bendera Jerman NPP Greifswald VVER-440