Thomas-Alexandre Dumas

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Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
General Dumas by Guillon Lethière.jpg
Engravir sebuah potret yang digambar oleh Guillaume Guillon-Lethière, c. 1797
Nama lahirThomas-Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie
Lahir(1762-03-25)25 Maret 1762
Jérémie, Saint-Domingue (kini Haiti)
Meninggal26 Februari 1806(1806-02-26) (umur 43)
Villers-Cotterêts, Prancis
Pengabdian Kerajaan Prancis
 Republik Pertama Prancis
Dinas/cabangAngkatan Darat Prancis
Angkatan Darat Revolusioner Prancis
Lama dinas1786–1801
PangkatJenderal divisional
Perang/pertempuranPerang Revolusi Prancis
Perang Koalisi Pertama
Perang Vendée
Kampenya Italia pada Perang Revolusi Prancis
Pengepungan Mantua (1796–1797)
Kampanye Prancis di Mesir dan Suriah
Pertempuran Piramida
PenghargaanNama diukir di bawah Arc de Triomphe
RelasiAlexandre Dumas (putra)
Alexandre Dumas (cucu)
Alexandre Lippmann (canggah)
Patung Jenderal Thomas-Alexandre Dumas yang dihancurkan oleh pasukan Nazi pada masa pendudukan Paris

Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (bahasa Prancis: [tɔmɑ alɛksɑ̃dʁ dymɑ davi də la pajət(ə)ʁi]; dikenal sebagai Alexandre Dumas; 25 Maret 1762 – 26 Februari 1806) adalah seorang jenderal Prancis pada masa Revolusi Prancis. Dengan Toussaint Louverture dan Abram Petrovich Gannibal di Kekaisaran Rusia, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas adalah perwira berpangkat tinggi keturunan Afrika (dengan ayah kulit putih dan ibu kulit hitam) yang memimpin sebuah pasukan Eropa.[1] Ia adalah orang kulit berwarna pertama dalam militer Prancis yang menjadi brigadir jenderal, jenderal divisional, dan kepala jenderal angkatan darat Prancis.[2] Dumas dan Toussaint Louverture (diangkat menjadi kepala jenderal pada 1797[3]) adalah dua perwira berpangkat tertinggi keturnan Afrika sub-Sahara di dunia barat sampai 1975, saat "Chappie" James menerima pangkat setara jenderal bintang empat dalam Angkatan Udara Amerika Serikat.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Toussaint Louverture was commissioned as "general-in-chief" of the army in French Saint-Domingue during the Haitian Revolution. Alfred-Amédée Dodds, who was of one-eighth African descent, became a general of division in 1898 and general-in-chief in 1900, but commanded only colonial troops. La Revue hebdomadaire, 2nd series, 4th year, v. 9, 4 August 1900, n.p., and in Mariani, Angelo and Uzanne, Joseph, eds., Figures contemporaines: Tirées de l'album Mariani v. 6 (Paris: H. Floury, 1901), n.p."Le Général Dodds". Abram Petrovich Gannibal had achieved major general rank in the Imperial Russian Army by 1752. In continental Europe, however, Alexandre Dumas is the only general of division and general-in-chief in modern history.
  2. ^ Alexandre Dumas was made brigadier general (the entry-level rank for generals in the French military hierarchy) of the French Army of the West on 30 July 1793, general of division one month later, and general-in-chief of the Army of the Western Pyrenees. Tom Reiss, The Black Count: Glory, Revolution, Betrayal, and the Real Count of Monte Cristo (New York: Crown Publishers, 2012), 145 and 147. The next black people to make brigadier general in the French military were Toussaint Louverture, André Rigaud, and Louis-Jacques Beauvais, all promoted to that rank on 23 July 1795. Madison Smartt Bell, Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography (New York: Vintage Books, 2007), 119. Note: Alexandre Dumas was the first French general of African descent, and was of mixed race; Louverture was the first French general of purely African descent. The assertion that Louverture was "the first black general in French history" is true if mixed-race men are not considered in this category, or if Dumas is overlooked. The claim has been made by Pierre Pluchon, Toussaint Louverture: Un révolutionnaire d'Ancien Régime (Paris: Fayard, 1989), 554, quoted in Daniel Desormeaux, Deborah Jenson and Molly Krueger Enz, "The First of the (Black) Memorialists: Toussaint Louverture", Yale French Studies no: 107 (2005), 138.
  3. ^ Madison Smartt Bell, Toussaint Louverture: A Biography (New York: Vintage Books, 2007), 144.

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Alexandre Dumas, père. Mes mémoires Vol. 1 (Paris, 1881).
  • Jon G. Gallaher, General Alexandre Dumas: Soldier of the French Revolution (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1997).
  • Ernest d’Hauterive, Un soldat de la Révolution: Le Général Alexandre Dumas (1762–1806) (Paris, 1897).
  • Gilles Henry, Les Dumas: Le secret de Monte Cristo Condé-sur-Noiraud: Corlet, 1982).
  • André Maurel, Les trois Dumas (Paris: Librairie illustrée, 1896).
  • André Maurois, The Titans: A Three-Generation Biography of the Dumas (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957).
  • Tom Reiss, The Black Count: Glory, Revolution, Betrayal, and the Real Count of Monte Cristo (New York: Crown Publishers, 2012).
  • Claude Ribbe, Alexandre Dumas, le dragon de la reine (Paris: Éditions du Rocher, 2002).
  • Claude Ribbe, Le diable noir (Monaco: Alphée, 2008).
  • Victor Emmanuel Roberto Wilson, Le Général Alexandre Dumas: Soldat de la liberté (Quebec: Quisqueya-Québec, 1977).