Tanaman penutup tanah

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Tanaman penutup tanah adalah tumbuhan atau tanaman yang khusus ditanam untuk melindungi tanah dari ancaman kerusakan oleh erosi dan / atau untuk memperbaiki sifat kimia dan sifat fisik tanah.

Tanaman penutup tanah berperan: (1) menahan atau mengurangi daya perusak butir-butir hujan yang jatuh dan aliran air di atas permukaan tanah, (2) menambah bahan organik tanah melalui batang, ranting dan daun mati yang jatuh, dan (3) melakukan transpirasi, yang mengurangi kandungan air tanah. Peranan tanaman penutup tanah tersebut menyebabkan berkurangnya kekuatan dispersi air hujan, mengurangi jumlah serta kecepatan aliran permukaan dan memperbesar infiltrasi air ke dalam tanah, sehingga mengurangi erosi.

Tumbuhan atau tanaman yang sesuai untuk digunakan sebagai penutup tanah dan digunakan dalam sistem pergiliran tanaman harus memenuhi syarat-syarat (Osche et al, 1961): (a) mudah diperbanyak, sebaiknya dengan biji, (b) mempunyai sistem perakaran yang tidak menimbulkan kompetisi berat bagi tanaman pokok, tetapi mempunyai sifat pengikat tanah yang baik dan tidak mensyaratkan tingkat kesuburan tanah yang tinggi, (c) tumbuh cepat dan banyak menghasilkan daun, (d) toleransi terhadap pemangkasan, (e) resisten terhadap gulma, penyakit dan kekeringan, (f) mampu menekan pertumbuhan gulma, (g) mudah diberantas jika tanah akan digunakan untuk penanaman tanaman semusim atau tanaman pokok lainnya, (h) sesuai dengan kegunaan untuk reklamasi tanah, dan (i) tidak mempunyai sifat-sifat yang tidak menyenangkan seperti duri dan sulur-sulur yang membelit.

Tanaman penutup tanah rendah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tanaman penutup tanah rendah terdiri dari jenis rumput-rumputan dan tumbuhan merambat atau menjalar:

  • Dipakai dalam pola pertanaman rapat: Calopogonium muconoides Desv, Centrosema pubescens Benth, Mimosa invisa Mart, Peuraria phaseoloides Benth.
  • Digunakan dalam pola pertanaman barisan: Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl (daun panahan, godong, prasman, jukut prasman), Salvia occidentalis Schwartz (langon, lagetan, randa nunut), Ageratum mexicanum Sims.
  • Digunakanuntuk penguat teras dan saluran-saluran air: Althenanthera amoena Voss (bayem kremah, kremek), Indigofera endecaphylla jacq (dedekan), Ageratum conyzoides L (babandotan), Erechtites valerianifolia Rasim (sintrong), Borreria latifolia Schum (bulu lutung, gempurwatu), Oxalis corymbosa DC, Brachiaria decumbens, Andropogon zizanoides (akar wangi), Panicum maximum (rumput benggala), Panicum ditachyum (balaban, paitan), Paspalum dilatum (rumput Australia), Pennisetum purpureum (rumput gajah) .

Tanaman Penutup Tanah sedang (perdu)[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Dipakai dalam pola pertanaman teratur di antara baris tanaman pokok: Clibadium surinamense var asperum baker, Eupatorium pallessens DC (Ki Dayang, Kirinyuh)
  • Digunakan dalam pola pertanaman pagar: Lantana camara L (tahi ayam, gajahan, seruni), Crotalaria anagyroides HBK, Tephrosia candida DC, Tepherosia vogelii, Desmodium gyroides DC (kakatua, jalakan). Acacia villosa Wild (lamtoro merah), Sesbania grandiflora PERS (turi), Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn (kaliandra merah), Gliricidia maculata (johar cina, gamal), Flemingia congesta Roxb, Crotalaria striata DC., Clorataria juncea, L. Crotalaria laurifolia Poir (urek-urekan, kacang cepel), Cajanus cajan Nillst (kacang hiris, kacang sarde) dan Indigofera arrecta Hooscht.
  • Penggunaan di luar areal pertanaman utama dan merupakan sumber pupuk hijau dan mulsa, untuk penghutanan dan perlindungan dinding jurang: Leucaena glauca (L) Benth (pete cina, lamtoro, kemelandingan), Tithonia tagetiflora Desp, Graphtophyllum pictum Gries (daun ungu, handeuleum), Cordyline fruticosa Backer, Eupatorium riparium REG.

Tanaman penutup tanah tinggi atau tanaman pelindung[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Digunakan dalam pola teratur di antara baris tanaman utama: Albizia falcata (sengon laut, jeunjing), Grevillea robusta A Cum, Pithecellobium saman benth (pohon hujan), Erythrina sp (dadap), Gliricidia sepium
  • Dipakai dalam barisan: Leucaena glauca atau Leucaena leucocephala
  • Penggunaan untuk melindungi jurang, tebing atau untuk penghutanan kembali: Albizia falcata dan Leucaena glauca, Albizia procera Benth, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus saligna, Cinchona succirubra, Gigantolochloa apus (bambu apus), Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa bambos.

Tumbuh-tumbuhan bawah (undergrowth) alami pada perkebunan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Banyak usaha telah dilakukan pada beberapa perkebunana, terutama perkebunan karet, dalam memanfaatkan tumbuh-tumbuhan bawah alami untuk melindungi tanah. Tumbuhan yang tidak disukai

Banyak tumbuhan yang termasuk dalam tumbuhan pengganggu atau tidak disukai yang dapat berfungsi sebagai penutup tanah atau pelindung tanah terhadap ancaman erosi. Tumbuh-tumbuhan itu tidak disukai karena sifat-sifatnya yang merugikan tanaman pokok dan sulit diberantas atau dibersihkan dari lahan usaha pertanian: Imperata cylindrica, Panicum repens (lampuyangan), Leersia hexandra (kalamento), Saccharum spontaneum (gelagah), Anastrophus compressus dan Paspalum compressum (tumput pahit).

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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