Surat kabar acuan

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
The New York Times Building di New York City; istilah "surat kabar acuan" awalnya mengacu pada The New York Times

Surat kabar acuan (newspaper of record) adalah surat kabar besar yang memiliki sirkulasi besar, fungsi editorial dan pengumpulan beritanya dianggap profesional dan biasanya dapat dipertanggungjawabkan. Sebuah surat kabar acuan bisa juga muncul dalam bentuk surat kabar masyarakat yang diizinkan atau dioperasikan oleh pemerintah untuk menerbitkan pemberitahuan masyarakat atau pemberitahuan hukum, lantas layak disebut "surat kabar acuan masyarakat".[1]

Makna lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

"Surat kabar acuan" jenis kedua (disebut juga "harian acuan" atau Presse de référence dalam bahasa Prancis) tidak memiliki kriteria resmi dan ciri-cirinya beragam. Jenis kedua ini terdiri dari surat kabar yang dianggap memiliki standar jurnalisme tinggi ketimbang media cetak lainnya, termasuk kebebasan editorial dan akurasinya, dan biasanya terkenal di seluruh dunia.[2][3] Meski masyarakat mengalami perubahan, surat kabar seperti ini sejak dulu memiliki gaya, model liputan, dan tradisi yang sama.[2]

Asal istilah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Istilah ini diyakini bermula di kalangan pustakawan yang menyebut The New York Times sebagai "surat kabar acuan" setelah harian tersebut menerbitkan indeks topik artikelnya pada tahun 1913.[4] Untuk meramaikan penggunaan istilah ini, The Times mengadakan kontes esai pada tahun 1927 dengan topik "Nilai Indeks dan Berkas The New York Times Sebagai Surat Kabar Acuan". The Times dan harian sejenisnya kemudian merangkum berbagai peristiwa, pengumuman, jadwal, direktori, proseding, transkrip, dan rapat setiap harinya. The Times saat ini tidak lagi tergolong surat kabar acuan menurut makna aslinya.[5]

Seiring waktu, sejarawan mulai bergantung pada The Times dan koran lainnya sebagai sumber arsip peristiwa lampau yang tepercaya sekaligus kumpulan opini masyarakat pada tiap tahun terbitnya. Istilah "surat kabar acuan" lantas berubah dari makna aslinya menjadi makna umum yang dipahami saat ini.[4]

Contoh[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Surat kabar Kota terbit Didirikan Bahasa Sumber
Argentina La Nación La Nación Buenos Aires 1870 Spanyol [6]
Australia The Sydney Morning Herald logo The Sydney Morning Herald Sydney 1831 Inggris [7][8]
Austria Die Presse Logo Die Presse Vienna 1848
Sebagian stafnya berpisah pada tahun 1864 dan membentuk Neue Freie Presse, diaryanisasi oleh Nazi tahun 1938 dan ditutup tahun 1939, didirikan lagi dengan nama Die Presse tahun 1946 [9]

Jerman Austria [10]
Bangladesh The Daily Star logo The Daily Star Dhaka 1991 Inggris [11]
Brasil O Estado de S. Paulo O Estado de S. Paulo São Paulo 1875 Portugal [12][13]
Belgia De Standaard De Standaard Groot-Bijgaarden 1918
Dibentuk tahun 1914, namun penerbitannya ditunda akibat Perang Dunia Pertama.
Belanda [14]
Kanada The Globe and Mail The Globe and Mail Toronto 1844
Penerus The Globe (didirikan 1844), The Toronto Mail (1872), dan Toronto Empire (1887); semuanya bergabung pada tahun 1895 dan 1936
Inggris [15][16][17][18][19][20][21]
Kanada La Presse La Presse Montreal 1884 Prancis [22][23]
Chili El Mercurio.svg El Mercurio Santiago 1900
Berpisah dari El Mercurio de Valparaíso (didirikan 1827)
Spanyol [24]
Tiongkok
(Hong Kong)
The South China Morning Post South China Morning Post Hong Kong 1903 Inggris [25]
Mesir Al-Ahram Kairo 1875 Arab [26][27]
Prancis Le Figaro Le Figaro Paris 1826
Surat kabar nasional tertua Prancis yang masih beroperasi.[28]
Prancis [29][30]
Prancis Le Monde Le Monde Paris 1944
Penerus harian kolaborasionis Le Temps (didirikan 1861).
Prancis [31][32]
Jerman Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurt 1949
Penerus Frankfurter Zeitung (didirikan 1856), dibredel tahun 1943 oleh Nazi
Jerman [33][34]
Yunani Kathimerini Athena 1919 Yunani [35]
India The Times of India The Times of India Mumbai 1838
Awalnya bernama The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce sampai terlibat merger tahun 1860–1.
Inggris [36]
Indonesia Kompas Kompas Jakarta 1965 Indonesia [37][38]
Iran Ettela'at Ettela'at Tehran 1926 Persia [39][40]
Irlandia The Irish Times The Irish Times Dublin 1859 Inggris [41]
Israel Haaretz Haaretz Tel Aviv 1919 Ibrani dan Inggris [42][43][44][45]
Italia Corriere della Sera Corriere della Sera Milan 1876 Italia [46][47]
Jepang The Asahi Shimbun logo.svg Asahi Shimbun Osaka 1879 Jepang [48]
Kenya Daily Nation Nairobi 1960
Didirikan dengan nama Taifa dalam bahasa Swahili tahun 1958.
Inggris [49][50]
Malaysia New Straits Times New Straits Times Kuala Lumpur 1965
Berpisah dari The Straits Times (didirikan 1845) pasca kemerdekaan Singapura.
Inggris [51]
Belanda NRC Handelsblad Amsterdam 1970
Hasil merger Algemeen Handelsblad (didirikan 1828) dan Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
Belanda [52]
Norwegia Aftenposten Aftenposten Oslo 1860 Riksmål [53]
Portugal Jornal de Notícias Porto 1888 Portugal [54]
Serbia Danas Belgrade 1997 Serbia [55]
Serbia Politika Politika Belgrade 1904 Serbia [56]
Singapura The Straits Times The Straits Times Singapore 1845 Inggris [51]
Korea Selatan Chosun Ilbo Chosun Ilbo Seoul 1920
Dibredel sejak 1940 sampai 1945 oleh pemerintah kekaisaran Jepang.
Korea [57]
Spanyol El País El País Madrid 1976 Spanyol [58]
Swedia Dagens Nyheter Dagens Nyheter Stockholm 1864 Swedia [59][60]
Swiss Neue Zürcher Zeitung Neue Zürcher Zeitung Zurich 1780 Jerman [61]
Turki Hürriyet Istanbul 1948 Turki [62]
Britania Raya The Daily Telegraph The Daily Telegraph London 1855 Inggris [63]
Britania Raya The Independent London 1986 Inggris [48]
Britania Raya The Times London 1785
Bernama The Daily Universal Register sampai tahun 1788.
Inggris [63][64]
Amerika Serikat Los Angeles Times logo.svg Los Angeles Times Los Angeles 1881 Inggris [48]
Amerika Serikat The New York Times The New York Times New York City 1851 Inggris [65]
Amerika Serikat The Washington Post The Washington Post Washington, D.C. 1877 Inggris [48]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. hlm. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0. 
  2. ^ a b Salles, Chloë (January 2010). "Media Coverage of the Internet: An Acculturation Strategy for Press of Record?" (PDF). Innovation Journalism. 7 (1): 5. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 2016-03-03. Diakses tanggal 2015-02-18. 
  3. ^ Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. hlm. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600. 
  4. ^ a b Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. hlm. 7. ISBN 0-275-95960-0. 
  5. ^ Okrent, Daniel. "THE PUBLIC EDITOR; Paper of Record? No Way, No Reason, No Thanks". The New York TImes. Diakses tanggal 18 April 2013. 
  6. ^ Vigón, Mercedes (July 12, 2013). "Journalism ethics is 'personal and non-transferable'" (Wawancara). Wawancara dengan International Press Institute. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2015-02-18. 
  7. ^ "What We're Reading". The New York Times. 14 October 2011. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2014-05-06. Diakses tanggal 6 May 2014. 
  8. ^ Simons, Margaret; Buller, Bradley (December 2013). "Journals of Record - Measure of Quality, or Dead Concept?" (PDF). Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne. Diarsipkan (PDF) dari versi asli tanggal 2014-05-06. Diakses tanggal 6 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "Die Presse - Die Geschichte". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2014-02-06. Diakses tanggal 2015-02-18. 
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  11. ^ "The Daily Star". infoasaid.org. Diakses tanggal 2014-05-18. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
  12. ^ "O Estado de S. Paulo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Diakses tanggal 10 October 2013. It is the...country’s newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the “New York Times of Latin America” because of its grave editorial demeanour. 
  13. ^ Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Diakses tanggal 10 October 2013. The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil`s newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil. 
  14. ^ "The press in Belgium". BBC News. 2005-11-16. 
  15. ^ "The Globe and Mail". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  16. ^ "CANADIAN STUDIES RESOURCES - Canadian Studies Databases and Indexes". Michigan Canadian Studies Roundtable. 2006-09-05. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2008-07-08. Diakses tanggal 2015-02-18. 
  17. ^ Agence France-Presse (2009-01-11). "Globe and Mail to cut jobs". The Straits Times. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2009-01-30. Diakses tanggal 2010-01-17. 
  18. ^ "What's behind the shake up at 'Canada's newspaper of record'?". rabble.ca. 2009-06-02. Diakses tanggal 2010-01-17. 
  19. ^ Buchanan, Carrie (March 2009). Gasher, Mike, ed. "Sense of Place in the Daily Newspaper" (PDF). Aether: The Journal of Media Geography. 4: 62–84 [70]. Diakses tanggal 14 October 2012. [T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership. 
  20. ^ Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2. 78: 728–744. This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record. 
  21. ^ Roger Keil, S. Harris Ali (2011). Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 144439911X. Diakses tanggal 14 October 2012. 
  22. ^ "Where's Mario". Maclean's. 2008-08-25. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2011-01-26. Diakses tanggal 2010-01-17. 
  23. ^ "Endorsements, opinions flourish in Quebec". cbc.ca. 2008-10-10. Diakses tanggal 2010-01-17. 
  24. ^ "El fenómeno de Bachelet pone en jaque a la derecha chilena". BBC Mundo. 2013-11-07. Diakses tanggal 2014-02-21. 
  25. ^ Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. 0143112953: Penguin. hlm. 140. The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong Kong 
  26. ^ Middle East Institute, 1950, p. 155.|quote=Al Ahram is... what The Times is to Englishmen and the New York Times to Americans
  27. ^ Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Diakses tanggal 10 October 2013. This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt 
  28. ^ Le Figaro opts for freemium web model, The Guardian
  29. ^ Le Figaro (French newspaper), Encyclopædia Britannica
  30. ^ "Le Monde, whose print edition comes out around lunchtime, was launched at the end of Nazi occupation of France in 1944 and took on the role of France's newspaper of record alongside the more conservative Le Figaro." - France's Le Monde newspaper editor quits after power struggle with staff Diarsipkan 2014-10-18 di Wayback Machine., Reuters, May the 14th, 2014
  31. ^ Thomas Fuller (2003-08-25). "World of Le Monde looks set to expand". International Herald Tribune. 
  32. ^ "France profile". BBC News. 12 January 2014. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2014. Le Monde - respected national daily, considered to be France's newspaper of record 
  33. ^ "German language reform resisted". The Washington Times. 29 May 2004. 
  34. ^ "Look back at the Britannica Calendar of Events to find out what happened in the year 2000". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Diakses tanggal 27 March 2010. 
  35. ^ Greece - Post Report - e Diplomat
  36. ^ Wilke, Mary; Manicini, Lawrence; Leonard, Spencer (Fall 2007). "Some recent CRL acquisitions related to colonial India". Centre for Research Libraries - Focus on Global Resources. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2009-09-15. Diakses tanggal 2015-02-18. 
  37. ^ The Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia - Google Books
  38. ^ Kompas Group Is Back on TV, This Time With Local Partners - The Jakarta Globe
  39. ^ Iran Media Guide - Tehran Bureau | FRONTLINE | PBS
  40. ^ Journalism in Iran: From Mission to Profession - Hossein Shahidi - Google Books
  41. ^ Dwan, David (April 2009). "The Irish Times, book review". The London Standard. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2014-05-27. Diakses tanggal 26 May 2014. Today, the Irish Times is one of Ireland’s most authoritative journals – the newspaper of record for political and intellectual elites from Mayo to Monkstown. Mark O’Brien provides a detailed and colourful account of this transformation. His history of the Irish Times is also the story of modern Ireland: it tracks the newspaper’s sceptical response to the emergence of the Free State in 1922 and the declaration of the Republic in 1949; it also examines its fractious relationship with the nation’s governments and political figureheads from Eamon de Valera (whom the paper repeatedly compared to Hitler) to Bertie Ahern. 
  42. ^ Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide Open Source Center (16 September 2008)
  43. ^ Gregory Levey (21 August 2008). "Pushing right-wing American politics — in Israel". Salon. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2014. In the past few months, Haaretz, Israel’s paper of record, has run a series of articles expressing misgivings about outside influence. 
  44. ^ Brant Rosen (11 May 2010). "Alan Dershowitz and the Politics of Desperation". The Huffington Post. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2014. Recent polling, alongside articles in both the New York Times and the Israeli paper of record, Ha'aretz, indicate that the American Jewish community no longer feels represented by our so-called representatives - if we ever did. 
  45. ^ Gershom Gorenberg (September 2002). "The Thin Green Line". Mother Jones. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2014. In late January, the declaration ran as an ad in Ha’aretz, the national paper of record... 
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  55. ^ "Danas". presseurop. 21 May 2012. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2013-12-27. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2013. Left leaning, Danas has become the independent daily of record in Serbia ... 
  56. ^ "Grigorev Commentary in Politika: Serbs Vote is Pragmatic". The Bulletin Arcadia University. 1 February 2011. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2013. ... wrote a commentary in the Jan. 26 issue of Politika, the Serbian newspaper of record and the oldest daily in the Balkans. 
  57. ^ Dediu, Horace (19 May 2012). "An interview with Kenney Ho of The Chosun Daily of Korea". Asymco. Diakses tanggal 10 October 2013. The Chosunilbo “has a history of 90 years, has been the most dominant, and influential paper of all time in Korea. It is the No.1 newspaper company in Korea with more than 1.8 million circulation, firmly holding the largest market possession. The paper is recognized Asianwide, where there are many readers in Japan and China.” 
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  59. ^ "PRESIDENT'S INTERVIEW WITH AL-ARABIYA RECEIVES GOOD COVERAGE IN SWEDEN". Diakses tanggal 10 October 2013. Paper of record Dagens Nyheter gave limited coverage, on the paper's website. 
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