Sindrom Havana

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Havana Syndrome
The Hotel Nacional in Havana is one of the locations where the syndrome has reportedly been experienced.[1]
Informasi umum
PenyebabNot definitively determined[2][3][4][5][6]
Aspek klinis
Gejala dan tandahearing a sudden loud noise, pain in one or both ears, feeling of pressure or vibrations in the head, tinnitus, visual problems, vertigo, nausea, cognitive difficulties,[7] fatigue and dizziness.[8]

Sindrom Havana adalah sekumpulan gejala medis dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui yang sebagian besar dialami di luar negeri oleh pejabat pemerintah dan personel militer Amerika Serikat. Gejalanya berkisar mulai dari telinga yang sakit dan berdenging hingga kesulitan kognitif. Sindrom ini pertama kali dilaporkan pada tahun 2016 oleh staf kedutaan Amerika Serikat dan Kanada di Havana, Kuba.[7][8]

Kementerian Luar Negeri Amerika Serikat menyebut sindrom ini adalah insiden kesehatan yang tidak dapat dijelaskan,[9][10] sementara Direktur Badan Intelijen Pusat William J. Burns secara terbuka menyebut sindrom ini adalah serangan.[11] A 2019 retrospective neuroimaging study of 40 affected diplomats in Cuba published in the medical journal JAMA found evidence that the diplomats had significant brain neuroimaging differences compared to healthy control group members, but it was not able to determine the cause of the observed differences and states that "the clinical importance of these differences is uncertain and may require further study".[12] While there is no expert consensus on the syndrome's cause,[13] an expert committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded in December 2020 that microwave energy (specifically, directed pulsed RF energy[7]) "appears to be the most plausible mechanism in explaining these cases among those that the committee considered" but that "each possible cause remains speculative".[2][4][14] Other potential causes or contributing factors of the symptoms that have been proposed have included ultrasound,[15] pesticides,[16] or mass psychogenic illness.[17]

The U.S. intelligence services have not reached a consensus on or a formal determination of the cause of the Havana syndrome, though U.S. intelligence and government officials have expressed suspicions to the press that Russian military intelligence is responsible.[18][19][20]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Cuba Travel Advisory". Department of State. January 10, 2018. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 30, 2018. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2018. 
  2. ^ a b "'Havana syndrome' likely caused by directed microwaves - US report". BBC News. December 6, 2020. 
  3. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama BroadSuspect
  4. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama NatAcademies
  5. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Corera
  6. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Intelligencer
  7. ^ a b c Nelson R (December 2021). "Havana syndrome might be the result of energy pulses". Lancet. 396 (10267): 1954. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32711-2. PMID 33341130 Periksa nilai |pmid= (bantuan). 
  8. ^ a b "Politics". The Economist. Diakses tanggal October 15, 2021. 
  9. ^ Atwood, Kylie (July 19, 2021). "About two dozen reports of mysterious health incidents on US personnel in Vienna". CNN. 
  10. ^ "U.S. expands China health alert amid illness reports". Reuters. June 7, 2018. 
  11. ^ John Hudson & Shane Harris, CIA station chief in Vienna recalled amid criticism of management and handling of mysterious 'Havana Syndrome' incidents, Washington Post (September 23, 2021).
  12. ^ Ragini Verma; Randel L. Swanson; Drew Parker; et al. (2019). "Neuroimaging Findings in US Government Personnel With Possible Exposure to Directional Phenomena in Havana, Cuba". JAMA. 322 (4): 336–347. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.9269. PMC 6652163alt=Dapat diakses gratis. PMID 31334794. 
  13. ^ Katie Bo Williams & Jeremy Herb, US investigating possible mysterious directed energy attack near White House Diarsipkan April 29, 2021, di Wayback Machine., CNN (April 29, 2021).
  14. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama NBCNews
  15. ^ Torres, Nora Gámez (March 2, 2018). "Computer scientists may have solved the mystery behind the 'sonic attacks' in Cuba". Miami Herald. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 22, 2018. Diakses tanggal April 22, 2018. 
  16. ^ Luc Chartrand, Martin Movilla and Lisa Ellenwood (September 19, 2019). "Havana syndrome: Exposure to neurotoxin may have been cause, study suggests". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal September 20, 2019. Diakses tanggal September 20, 2019. 
  17. ^ Vergano, Dan (30 September 2021). "A Declassified State Department Report Says Microwaves Didn't Cause "Havana Syndrome"". BuzzFeed News. Diakses tanggal 30 September 2021. 
  18. ^ Greg Myre, CIA Recalls Vienna Station Chief In Move Related to Handling of 'Havana Syndrome', NPR (September 24, 2021).
  19. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama politicounit
  20. ^ Adam Entous (May 31, 2021). "Are U.S. Officials Under Silent Attack?". New Yorker. Top officials in both the Trump and the Biden Administrations privately suspect that Russia is responsible for the Havana Syndrome. Their working hypothesis is that agents of the G.R.U., the Russian military's intelligence service, have been aiming microwave-radiation devices at U.S. officials to collect intelligence from their computers and cell phones, and that these devices can cause serious harm to the people they target.